A Treatise on Pruning Forest and Ornamental Trees

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Society, 1900 - Pruning - 65 pages
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Page 25 - Across the middle of the hole, from top to bottom, a piece of fine wire is stretched to serve as a guide to the eye. Holding the dendroscope at the level of the eye, with the wire opposite the centre of the trunk of the tree to be studied, the operator approaches the tree until the bottom of the cut falls on the trunk at the ground line. It is easy to see at a glance with the aid of this contrivance what operations should be...
Page vii - ... left by the removal of the affected part of the limb is a method used on some trees. This may be justified in certain cases, but it also must be supplemented by careful spraying of the bark. If the limb is removed, the cut should be at the junction of the limb with the parent branch. The cut should be made close to and perfectly even with the outline of the parent branch, without regard to the size of the resulting wound (Fig. 9). It is important that the cut be smooth, for on this condition...
Page 60 - ... coal tar on apple trees, and it has been used successfully on peaches by Jehle (1913). It is interesting to note a quotation from Des Cars as given by Bailey (1907:111-113): The application of coal tar should not be made except with considerable caution in the treatment of wounds on drupaceous fruits (cherries, peaches, plums, etc.), and especially on the plum tree. It has often been observed that the bark of fruit trees of this class has suffered from the application of coal tar. This is not...
Page 10 - It follows that a wound caused by amputation of a branch must, in order to heal properly, be made perfectly even with the trunk, that every part of its outer edge may be brought into direct communication with the leaves through the network of cells destined to convey the descending sap. Although this theory rests on one of the most elementary principles of vegetable physiology, it has not been applied before to practical forest management. The amputation having been made even with the trunk in the...
Page 27 - ... first object of pruning should be to produce these conditions. The head, as has already been explained, should be oval in form; the height of this, however, must depend on the size of the trunk and the age of the tree when first subjected to the operations of pruning. Selection of the leader — The branch most nearly perpendicular on the trunk of the tree should be selected to form the leader ; and it may be stated as an absolute rule that whenever a branch near the top of the tree stands vertically...
Page 30 - The name indicates the object for which such branches are left; namely,to attract and elaborate, by means of their leaves, a sufficient flow of sap to ensure the growth of the branch. Sometimes the main branches are so long that it is impossible for the operator to reach the ends where the sap-lifting branchlets should, of course, be left. In the case of the oak, such branches, except for the appearance of the tree, are of little importance; and provided the main branch retained is of a certain length...
Page 25 - ... the operator may be able to judge intelligently which branches should be removed or shortened in order to reduce it to the desired shape. This may at first seem difficult to beginners in the art of pruning, and a dendroscope, the name suggested for a simple little contrivance, may be here used with advantage.
Page 52 - ... arrests the circulation of sap, while the cavity between the bark and the wood furnishes a safe retreat for a multitude of insects, which hasten the destruction of the tree. The dead bark should be entirely removed, even should it be necessary in so doing to make large wounds. Attention, too, should be given to injuries to the bark caused by the fall of neighboring trees.
Page 58 - It can be applied with an ordinary painter's brush, and may be used cold, except in very cold weather, when it should be slightly warmed before application. Coal-tar has remarkable preservative properties, and may be used with equal advantage on living and dead wood. A single application without penetrating deeper than ordinary paint forms an impervious coating to the wood cells, which would without such covering, under external influences, soon become channels of decay. This simple application then...
Page 37 - A casual examination," he says, " will show that between the surface, which has been cut smooth and treated with coaltar, and the new tissues which soon cover it, there is only the thinnest crack or fissure analogous to the natural cracks or openings which always appear in wood in seasoning, and which, as is well known, do not diminish its strength, elasticity, or value for all industrial purposes.

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