A Treatise on Pruning Forest and Ornamental Trees

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A. Williams, 1881 - Pruning - 65 pages
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Page 32 - ... towards the trunk, should be headed in, as well as branches with too great a tendency to droop unnaturally ; generally, it will only be necessary to shorten such branches to induce them to re-assume a natural direction of growth. When several branches have been developed from one node, forming what botanists call a whorl, they should not all be cut away at the same time, lest the circulation of sap be checked by the destruction of bark (and consequently of cambium layer) over too large a surface.
Page vii - ... left by the removal of the affected part of the limb is a method used on some trees. This may be justified in certain cases, but it also must be supplemented by careful spraying of the bark. If the limb is removed, the cut should be at the junction of the limb with the parent branch. The cut should be made close to and perfectly even with the outline of the parent branch, without regard to the size of the resulting wound (Fig. 9). It is important that the cut be smooth, for on this condition...
Page 60 - The application of coal tar should not be made except with considerable caution in the treatment of wounds on drupaceous fruits (cherries, peaches, plums, etc.), and especially on the plum tree. It has often been observed that the bark of fruit trees of this class has suffered from the application of coal tar. This is not the case, however, with pome-bearing trees (apples, pears, etc.); to these coal tar may be applied with perfect safety.
Page 10 - ... leaves is carried down again in a liquid state and is deposited, year after year, in the successive concentric layers of wood which form the trunks of all trees, with the exception of Palms, Yuccas, &c., which need not now be considered. It follows that a wound caused by the amputation of a branch must, in order to heal properly, be made perfectly even with the trunk, that every part of its outer edge may be brought into direct communication with the leaves through the network of cells destined...
Page 36 - ... trunk of the tree than the cut. By adopting this method all danger, too, of injury to the trunk from the weight of the falling branch tearing away the bark will be avoided. The operation of amputating a branch will not be complete, whatever method is employed, until the wound is made perfectly smooth. The workman may do this with his hatchet, used as a plane, the handle being held in one hand, and the point of the blade in the other. Use of Coal Tar in Dressing Wounds. — All wounds made on...
Page 65 - ... trunk would have made. The custom of pruning pines is very general in France, and is often carried to excess. The removal of all branches, with the exception of a few at the top of the tree, must greatly interfere with the growth in diameter of the trunk ; and healthy branches should not be removed for the sake of creating a clean trunk of more than one-half, or at the most two- thirds, of the entire height of the tree. The general rule of pruning already explained in the case of deciduous trees,...
Page vii - It is necessary to prune in such a manner that no portion of an amputated or dead branch shall be left on the trunk. The cut should always be made close to and perfectly even with the trunk, without regard to the size of the wound thus made " (see Fig. 14) . It has been our practice to follow this rule, except where a large excrescence or "shoulder" projected from the trunk around the base of the limb.
Page 53 - ... If the cavity is too large to be closed in this manner, a piece of thoroughly seasoned oak-board, carefully fitted to it, may be securely nailed into the opening and then covered with coal-tar. It is often advisable to guard against the attacks of insects, by nailing a piece of zinc or other metal over the board, in such a way that the growth of the new wood will in time completely cover it. These operations resemble, if such a comparison is admissible, the fillings performed by dentists, and...
Page 9 - II from the air and decompose carbonic acid gas, the basis of which is carbon, which, combined with water, constitutes the elements of wood. The sap, thus elaborated by the leaves, is carried down again in a liquid state and is deposited, year after year, in the successive concentric layers of wood which form the trunks of all trees, with the exception of palms, yuccas, etc., which need not now be considered.
Page 6 - Opponents of pruning maintain too that the scars which such operations must leave on the trunks of trees indicate internal defects in the wood, and that these trees cannot be readily sold. This objection is also well founded in view of the manner in which the operations of pruning are generally performed; but it is the method which is faulty, and such objections must disappear before more scientific and rational treatment A glance at Fig.

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