A treatise on surveying: comprising the theory and the practice, Volume 2

Front Cover
D. Appleton and company, 1897 - Surveying
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Contents

Tho Holton base
65
Iced bar apparatus
73
ARTICLE PAQE 628 Cutoff cylinder
76
Method of measurement
77
Computation formulas
78
Standardization of HT
79
Duplex base apparatus
81
Accuracy obtainable in base meas urement
84
egrec of accuracy necessary
85
Reducing the base to the level of the sea
86
To interpolate a base
87
Eccentric reduction
89
Reduction of horizontal direction to sea level
90
Kinal adjustment
91
Local or station adjustments
92
Number of local equations at a station
93
Local adjustment for directions
96
General or figure adjustment
101
Number of angle equations in a net
103
ART1CLE PAOE 648 Side equations
105
Reduction to linear form
106
Number of aide equations in a net
107
Adjustment of the discrepancy in bases
110
Approximate solution Ill 653 Adjustment for discrepancy in azimuth
113
Computation of geodetic positions
114
Difference in longitude
120
Reverse or buck azimuth
121
The shape of the earth
123
Latitudes used ill geodesy
124
Lines on a spheroid
125
Astronomical and geodetic azi muths
126
Determination of the figure of the earth
127
Formulas for the computation of meridians and parallels
128
Mapmaking
130
Field Astronomy
137
Spheroid coordinates
138
Altitude and azimuth in terms of declination and hour anglo
139
Declination and hour angle in terms of altitude and azimuth
140
Hour angle azimuth and zenith distance of a star at elongation
141
Precession
142
The aberration of the fixed stars
143
The beginning of the year
144
Parallax
145
The dip of the horizon
146
Sidereal and solar days
147
Relation of apparent and mean time
148
The transit
156
The meridian telescope
158
To make the lines vertical
161
Method of observation and selec tion of stars
163
Record
165
Pivot inequality
166
Value of level division
168
Computation of chronometer cor rection
170
Collimation correction
171
Azimuth correction
172
Definitions
176
By transporting chronometers
177
By exchange of terrestrial signals
179
ART1CLE PAOE 702 By celestial signals
180
The chronograph
181
Personal equation
183
Adjustment of discrepancies
184
First methodBy meridian alti tudes or zenith distances
185
Third methodBy single alti tude at a given time
186
Fourth methodTo reduce an al titude observed at a given time to the meridian
188
Fifth methodBy reduction of eircummeridian altitude
189
Sixth methodBy the pole star
191
The instrument 192
192
Definitions
209
Azimuth by one observed altitude of a star or the sun
212
Azimuth by observation on a close circumpolar star at any hour angle
213
Diurnal observation
216
X1ILTrioonometric Levelino
221
The vertical circle
223
Level correction
224
Refraction
227
Formulas for computation 288
235
Radius of curvature
236
Precise Levelino
242
Definition 212
243
Rods
245
Adjustments
248
Instrumental constants
249
Standardization and adjustment of rods
252
Method of observation
254
Bench marks
257
Records
259
Computation
260
Curvature and refraction
262
Temperature correction
263
Index correction
264
Precision of a line of levels
267
Adjustment of levels
269
Mean sea level
271
Principles
273
7fi0 Barometers
275
The hypsometer
276
Applications
277
Barometric Levelino
282
ARTICLE PAOE ART1CLE PAOE
294
Topooraphy
297
799
322
illumination
352
Maritime or TIydrooraphic Surveyino
375
To measure a line both ends
382
Underoround or Mining Surveying
401
ART1CLE PAGE 842 The transit
404
nking the sights
406
Plumbing the shaft
408
Keeping the notes
411
Tabling the survey
414
Making the map
419
Second objectLocating new lines
420
When the mine is entered by an adit
421
City Surveyino
425
Size of blocks
428
Width of streets
429
Alleys
430
Instruments
432
Subdivision of blocks
433
Marking lot corners
434
Street grades
435
Cross section of streets
437
Subsurfaco lines
439
Transit notes
441
Maps and profiles
444
Surveys for other kinds of mu nicipal engineering
445
Street railways
448
Primary triangulation
451
Traverse lines
453
Linear measurement
457
Detailed measurements
459
Suburban work
460
Cost of surveys
461
Corrections for temperature of the mercury
466
THE
474
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Page 472 - Extract from Preface. SIGHT : An Exposition of the Principles of Monocular and Binocular Vision. By JOSEPH LE CONTE, LL. D., author of "Elements of Geology"; "Religion and Science"; and Professor of Geology and Natural History in the University of California.
Page 22 - If we now add 8 feet to tripod and 8 feet to signal-pole, the visual ray would certainly pass 6 feet above the tangent point, and 20 feet of the pole would be visible from A. II. Elevations required at given distances. — If it is desired to ascertain whether two points in the reconnaissance, estimated to be 44 miles apart, would be visible one from the other, the natural elevations must be at least 278 feet above mean tide, or one 230 feet, and the other 331 feet, etc. This supposes that the intervening...
Page 339 - Rule 2. — When the point sought is without the great circle it is always on the same side of the line from the most distant point as the intersection of the other two lines.
Page 147 - A sidereal day is the interval between two successive transits of the vernal equinox over the same meridian. It is 3...
Page 470 - FRENCH LITERATURE. By Edward Dowden. DCL, LL.D., Professor of English Literature at the University of Dublin.
Page 398 - All buoys along the coast, or in bays, harbors, sounds, or channels, shall be colored and numbered, so that passing up the coast or sound, or entering the bay, harbor, or channel, red buoys with even numbers shall be passed on the starboard hand, black buoys with uneven numbers on the port hand, and buoys with red and black stripes on either hand. Buoys in channel-ways shall be colored with alternate white and black perpendicular stripes.
Page 280 - to be applied to the approximate altitude for the decrease of gravity on a vertical acting on the density of the mercurial column. It is always additive.
Page i - The twenty-one essays which constitute the work present the whole subject of evolution with great fullness. A TREATISE ON SURVEYING, COMPRISING THE THEORY AND THE PRACTICE. By WILLIAM M. GILLESPIE, LL.
Page 336 - BŁ, intersecting at d; through d draw a line directed to C. Then set up at C, and assuming the point c on the line dC, at an estimated distance from d, and putting the table in a position parallel to that which is occupied at D, by means of...
Page 279 - Z = the difference of level between the two barometers ; L = the mean latitude between the two stations ; H= the height of the barometer at the upper station reduced to the temperature of the barometer at the lower station ; or, H= h...

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