A Treatise on Surveying: Comprising the Theory and the Practice

Front Cover
D. Appleton, 1896 - Surveying
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Contents

In columns
54
Fieldbooks
56
Surveying by tielines
58
Surveying by diagonals
60
Optical square
61
Diagonals and perpendiculars
62
Offsets
65
Platting offsets
68
Calculating content
69
Equalizing TO 102 Combination of methods
71
Fieldbooks
72
Inaccessible areas
76
106120 Problems on perpendiculars
77
121125 Problems on parallels
81
Ranging with rods
82
By perpendiculars
85
By symmetrical triangles
86
By harmonic conjugates
87
Across a valley
89
Over a hill S 141 On water
90
Through a wood
91
By perpendiculars
92
By equilateral triangles 9i 147 By symmetrical triangles
93
By parallels
94
154155 By symmetrical triangles
95
By harmonic division
96
To an inaccessible intersection
97
By a parallelogram
98
Compass Surveying
100
The needle
101
The sights
102
The divided circle
103
The points
104
LevelB
106
Verniers
107
Jacobs staff
108
The prismatic compass
109
Detects of the compass ill 180 Taking bearings
112
Marking of com pass points
114
AXTlCLE PAGE 186 Local attraction
117
Angles of deflection
118
To change bearings
120
Line surveying
121
Checks by intersecting bearings
122
Canalmaps
124
Field notes
125
Tests of accuracy
126
Method of intersection
127
Platting bearings
128
With a protractor
129
208 To close a plat
130
Fieldplatting
131
With a protractor
132
Drawing board protractor
133
With a scale of chords
134
216 With a table of natural sines
135
Stretching the paper 186
137
By transfer paper
138
226 By intersections 188
139
By proportional scale 189
140
Orientation
141
Definitions
142
Calculation of latitudes and de partures
143
article page 241 Formulas
144
Traverse table
145
Application to testing a survey
148
Application to supplying omis sions
149
Mascheronis theorem
161
New method of calculating areas
162
Definitions
164
By the north star in the meridian
165
Times of crossing the meridian
167
By the north star at extreme elon gation
168
Observations
170
Setting out a meridian
172
Magnetic declination in the United States
173
To correct magnetic bearings
174
To survey a line with true bearings
176
Diurnal variation
177
Secular variation
178
Determination of change by inter polation
179
Determination of change by old lines 180
180
To run old lines
181
Remedy for evils of secular change
184
Transit Surveying
185
Instrumental parallax
192
The diagonal eyepiece
198
Retrograde verniers
204
Circle divided to 15
210
Obstacles to Surveying
242
ARTlCLE PAGE
296
Surveying United States Public Lands
301
Resurveys
343
LEVELiNG
352
General statement 869
370
The pogmethod of adjustment
372
Egaults level 873
374
Rods 875
376
Vernier 877
378
Field routine
380
Fieldnotes
382
First form of fieldbook 882
388
Equal distances of sight 888
389
Limits oi precision 3S0 547 Triallevels
390
Steep slopes
392
When tho rod is too low
393
hen the rod is too near
394
Underwood 895
395
A house
396
Reciprocal leveling
397
Difficulties
398
Staking out work 898
399
Applications 899
400
Appf ndix A Synopsis of Plane Trigonometry
401
Trigonometricalliues
402
The lines as ratios
403
Their changes of sign
404
Their mutual relations
405
Two arcs
406
The tables
407
Oblique angled triangles
408
Appendix B Transversals Harmonic Division etc
410
ARTiCLE PAQE ARTiCLE PAGE
412
i
421
325
3
To magnetize a needle
11
28
13
Use of instrument 819
4
Ml
5
sm
26
Continuous wnter lcvels 859
41
339
49
Description
61

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Page 343 - AN ACT providing for the sale of the lands of the United States in the Territory NORTHWEST of the Ohio, and above the mouth of the Kentucky river...
Page 301 - ... the excess or deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or deducted from the western and northern ranges of sections or half sections in such township, according as the error may be in. running the lines from east to west, or from south to north.
Page 306 - ... to lay out the same into tracts as far as practicable, of fifty-eight poles in front and four hundred and sixty-five poles in depth, of such shape, and bounded by such lines as the nature of the country will render practicable, and most convenient: Provided however.
Page 313 - ... thrown up from the four sides of the line, outside the trench, so as to form a continuous elevation along its outer edge. In mounds of earth, common to four townships or to four sections, they will present the angles of the quadrangular trench (diagonally) towards the cardinal points. In mounds common only to two townships or two sections, the sides of the quadrangular trench will face the cardinal points. Prior to piling up the earth...
Page 157 - Art. (288), with reference to a Meridian passing through the extreme East or West Station, and place them in the eighth column. 5. Multiply the Double Longitude of each course by the corrected Latitude of that course, placing the North Products in the ninth column, and the South Products in the tenth column. 6. Add up the last two columns, subtract the smaller sum from the larger, and divide the difference by two. The quotient will be the content desired.
Page 312 - From quarter section and meander corners two bearing trees are to be marked, one within each of the adjoining sections. Stones at township corners (a small monument of stones being alongside thereof) must have six notches cut with a pick or chisel on each edge or side towards the cardinal points ; and where used as section corners on the range and township lines, or as section corners in the interior of a township, they will also be notched by a pick or chisel, to correspond with the directions given...
Page 191 - This application of the Telescope may be considered as completely annihilating that part of the error of observation which might otherwise arise from an erroneous estimation of the direction in which an object lies from the observer's eye, or from the centre of the instrument. It is, in fact, the grand source of all the precision of modern Astronomy, without which all other refinements in instrumental workmanship would be thrown away.
Page 300 - ... miles square, — two things involving in connection a mathematical impossibility. For strictly to conform to the meridian necessarily throws the township out of square, by reason of the convergency of meridians...
Page 311 - ... respectively. Each of the posts at the corners of sections in the interior of a township must indicate, by a number of notches on each of its four...
Page 303 - E., and proceed as with townships situated "north and west," except that the random or trial lines will be run and measured west, and the true lines east, throwing the excess over or deficiency under four hundred and eighty chains on the west end of the line, as required by law ; wherefore...

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