# A Treatise on Surveying: Comprising the Theory and the Practice..., Part 1

D. Appleton, 1897 - Surveying

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### Contents

 Trigonornetrioally 49 Surveying by diagonals 50 By sketoh 54 Field books 56 Surveying by tie lines 57 Chain angles 58 Surveying by diagonals 60 Optical square 61 Diagonals and perpendiculars 62 Offsets 65 Platting offsets 68 Calculating content 69 Equalizing 70 Combination of methods 71 Fieldbooks 72 Inaccessible areas 76 106120 Problems on perpendiculars 77 121125 Problems on parallels 81 Ranging with rods 82 By perpendiculars 85 By symmetrical triangles 86 By harmonic conjugates 87 Across a valley 89 On water 90 Through a wood 91 By perpendiculars 92 By equilateral triangles 93 B When One End of the Line is accessible 149151 By perpendiculars 94 By symmetrical triangles 95 By harmonic division 96 To an inaccessible intersection 97 By a parallelogram 98 Principle 10 100 The needle 101 The sights 102 The divided circle 103 The points 104 Levels 106 Verniers 107 Tripods 10T 177 Jacobs staff 108 The prismatic compass 109 Detects of the compass Ill 180 Taking bearings 112 Marking of compass points 113 Reading the vernier 114 To magnetize a needle 116 Local attraction 117 Angles of deflection 118 To change bearings 120 Line surveying 121 Checks by intersecting bearings 122 Canal maps 123 Farm surveying 124 Fiold notes 126 Method of intersection 127 Platting bearings 128 With a protractor 129 To close a plat 130 Field platting 131 With a protractor 132 Drawing board protractor 133 With a scale of chords 184 134 With a table of natural sines 135 Stretching the paper 136 Copying by tracing 186 137 By transfer paper 138 By intersections 188 139 By pantagraph 140 Orientation 141 Definitions 142 Calculation of latitudes nnd de partures 144 Traversetable 145 Application to testing a survey 148 Application to supplying omis sions 149 Balancing a survey 150 Application to platting 151 Methods 152 Definitions 153 Areas 155 A four sided field 156 To find east or west station 157 255257 Examples 161 New method of calculating areas 162 Definitions 164 By the north star in the meridian 165 Times of crossing the meridian 167 By the north star at extreme elon gation 168 Observations 170
 Remedy for evils of secular change 184 astioli 284 The transit 185 Surveyors transit 187 The telescope 188 I 190 Instrumental parallax 192 Supports 193 The graduated circle 194 Movements 195 Parallel plates 196 Watch teleecopo 197 The diagonal eyepiece 198 The theodolite 200 Definitions 201 General rules 202 Retrograde verniers 203 Illustration 204 Circle divided into degrees 205 Circle divided to 80 206 Circle divided to 20 208 Circle divided to 15 210 Arc of excess 211 Compass vernier 212 Object and necessity 214 Second adjustment 215 Third adjustment 218 Centering the eyepiece 811 219 To measure an angle 22S 830 Reduction of high and low objects 224 Angles of deflection 225 Traversing 226 Use of compass 227 Farm surveying 228 With the engineers chain 280 230 Description and use 285 238 Description of tables 288 240 354858 Perpendiculars 242 Parallels 244 General method 245 When the line is inaccessible 24ii 866 With only an angular instrument 246 General method 848 247 By triangulation 250 Its nature 283 263 To part off a triangle 269 To part off a triangle 275 Methods 281 By the shortest line 290 By lines perpendicular to a side 296 Order 324 A great cir Ae 384 336 General statement 325 I 490 Convergence of meridians 342 General statement 869 369 Second adIustment 370 Third adjustment 371 The peg method of adjustment 372 Egaults level 873 I 374 Rods 375 Targets 376 Vernier 377 The Boston rod 378 Field routine 380 Field notes 882 382 Second form of field book 385 Third form of field book 387 Best length of sights 888 388 ARTiCLE PAGE 544 Bench marks 389 Limits of precision 890 390 Steep slopes 392 When the rod is too low 898 393 When the rod is too near 394 A swamp 894 395 Board fence 896 396 Its nature 897 400 Definition 401 Trigonometrical lines 402 The lines as ratios 403 Their changes of sign 404 Their mutual relations 405 Two arcs 406 The tables 407 Obliqueangled triangles 408 Theory of transversals 410 Tbc complete quadrilateral 412 Chain surveying 41 fi Leveling 418 By latitudes and departures 248 429 Table of chobds 436 Looarithms of numbers 1 Previous means 24 L 27 Copyright

### Popular passages

Page 405 - Every circumference is regarded as being divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts, called minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. These divisions are indicated by the marks ° ' ". Thus 28 degrees, 17 minutes, and 49 seconds, are written 28° 17' 49" Fractions of a second are best expressed decimally.
Page 349 - AN ACT providing for the sale of the lands of the United States in the Territory NORTHWEST of the Ohio, and above the mouth of the Kentucky river...
Page 315 - bearing trees," with the course and distance of the same from their respective corners; and the precise relative position of witness corners to the true corners. 3. The kind of materials of which corners are constructed.
Page 405 - Every circumference of a. circle, whether the circle be large or small, is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes, and each minute into 60 equal parts called seconds.
Page 305 - And in all cases where the exterior lines of the townships, thus to be subdivided into sections or half sections, shall exceed or shall not extend six miles, the excess or deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or deducted from the western and northern ranges of sections or half sections in such township, according as the error may be in. running the lines from east to west, or from south to north.
Page 309 - In extending south or north boundaries of a township to the east, where the southeast or northeast corner cannot be established in the regular way, the same rule will be observed, except that such boundaries will be run east on a true line, and the east boundary run north or south, as the case may be. Allowance for the convergency of meridians will be made whenever necessary.
Page 318 - ... is to be marked the appropriate number of the particular one of the four sections, respectively, which such side faces; also on one side thereof are to be marked the numbers of its township and range; and to make such marks yet more conspicuous, (in manner aforesaid), a streak of red chalk is to be applied. In...
Page 317 - ... traced, the blazes to be opposite each other, coinciding in direction with the line where the trees stand very near it, and to approach nearer each other, the further the line passes from the blazed trees. Due care must ever be taken to have the lines so well marked as to be readily followed.
Page 315 - ... bottom"; or swamp, marsh, grove, and windfall, with the course of the same at both points of intersection; also the distances at which you begin to ascend, arrive at the top, begin to descend and reach the foot of all remarkable hills and ridges, with their courses, and estimated height, in feet, above the level land of the surrounding country, or above the bottom lands, ravines, or waters near which they are situated.
Page 22 - If foot for each degree of Fahrenheit. If a wind blows with or against the movement of the sound, its velocity must be added or subtracted. If it blows obliquely, the correction will evidently equal its velocity multiplied by the cosine of the angle which the direction of the wind makes with the direction of the sound.* If the gun be fired at each end of the base in turn, and the means of the times taken, the effect of the wind -will be eliminated. If a watch is not at hand, suspend a pebble to a...