A Treatise on Surveying: Comprising the Theory and the Practice..., Part 1

Front Cover
D. Appleton, 1897 - Surveying
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Contents

Trigonornetrioally
49
Surveying by diagonals
50
By sketoh
54
Field books
56
Surveying by tie lines
57
Chain angles
58
Surveying by diagonals
60
Optical square
61
Diagonals and perpendiculars
62
Offsets
65
Platting offsets
68
Calculating content
69
Equalizing
70
Combination of methods
71
Fieldbooks
72
Inaccessible areas
76
106120 Problems on perpendiculars
77
121125 Problems on parallels
81
Ranging with rods
82
By perpendiculars
85
By symmetrical triangles
86
By harmonic conjugates
87
Across a valley
89
On water
90
Through a wood
91
By perpendiculars
92
By equilateral triangles
93
B When One End of the Line is accessible 149151 By perpendiculars
94
By symmetrical triangles
95
By harmonic division
96
To an inaccessible intersection
97
By a parallelogram
98
Principle 10
100
The needle
101
The sights
102
The divided circle
103
The points
104
Levels
106
Verniers
107
Tripods 10T 177 Jacobs staff
108
The prismatic compass
109
Detects of the compass Ill 180 Taking bearings
112
Marking of compass points
113
Reading the vernier
114
To magnetize a needle
116
Local attraction
117
Angles of deflection
118
To change bearings
120
Line surveying
121
Checks by intersecting bearings
122
Canal maps
123
Farm surveying
124
Fiold notes
126
Method of intersection
127
Platting bearings
128
With a protractor
129
To close a plat
130
Field platting
131
With a protractor
132
Drawing board protractor
133
With a scale of chords 184
134
With a table of natural sines
135
Stretching the paper
136
Copying by tracing 186
137
By transfer paper
138
By intersections 188
139
By pantagraph
140
Orientation
141
Definitions
142
Calculation of latitudes nnd de partures
144
Traversetable
145
Application to testing a survey
148
Application to supplying omis sions
149
Balancing a survey
150
Application to platting
151
Methods
152
Definitions
153
Areas
155
A four sided field
156
To find east or west station
157
255257 Examples
161
New method of calculating areas
162
Definitions
164
By the north star in the meridian
165
Times of crossing the meridian
167
By the north star at extreme elon gation
168
Observations
170
Remedy for evils of secular change
184
astioli 284 The transit
185
Surveyors transit
187
The telescope 188 I
190
Instrumental parallax
192
Supports
193
The graduated circle
194
Movements
195
Parallel plates
196
Watch teleecopo
197
The diagonal eyepiece
198
The theodolite
200
Definitions
201
General rules
202
Retrograde verniers
203
Illustration
204
Circle divided into degrees
205
Circle divided to 80
206
Circle divided to 20
208
Circle divided to 15
210
Arc of excess
211
Compass vernier
212
Object and necessity
214
Second adjustment
215
Third adjustment
218
Centering the eyepiece 811
219
To measure an angle 22S 830 Reduction of high and low objects
224
Angles of deflection
225
Traversing
226
Use of compass
227
Farm surveying
228
With the engineers chain 280
230
Description and use 285
238
Description of tables 288
240
354858 Perpendiculars
242
Parallels
244
General method
245
When the line is inaccessible 24ii 866 With only an angular instrument
246
General method 848
247
By triangulation
250
Its nature 283
263
To part off a triangle
269
To part off a triangle
275
Methods
281
By the shortest line
290
By lines perpendicular to a side
296
Order
324
A great cir Ae 384
336
General statement 325 I 490 Convergence of meridians
342
General statement 869
369
Second adIustment
370
Third adjustment
371
The peg method of adjustment
372
Egaults level 873 I
374
Rods
375
Targets
376
Vernier
377
The Boston rod
378
Field routine
380
Field notes 882
382
Second form of field book
385
Third form of field book
387
Best length of sights 888
388
ARTiCLE PAGE 544 Bench marks
389
Limits of precision 890
390
Steep slopes
392
When the rod is too low 898
393
When the rod is too near
394
A swamp 894
395
Board fence 896
396
Its nature 897
400
Definition
401
Trigonometrical lines
402
The lines as ratios
403
Their changes of sign
404
Their mutual relations
405
Two arcs
406
The tables
407
Obliqueangled triangles
408
Theory of transversals 410 Tbc complete quadrilateral
412
Chain surveying 41 fi Leveling
418
By latitudes and departures 248
429
Table of chobds
436
Looarithms of numbers
1
Previous means
24
L
27
Copyright

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Page 405 - Every circumference is regarded as being divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts, called minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. These divisions are indicated by the marks ' ". Thus 28 degrees, 17 minutes, and 49 seconds, are written 28 17' 49" Fractions of a second are best expressed decimally.
Page 349 - AN ACT providing for the sale of the lands of the United States in the Territory NORTHWEST of the Ohio, and above the mouth of the Kentucky river...
Page 315 - bearing trees," with the course and distance of the same from their respective corners; and the precise relative position of witness corners to the true corners. 3. The kind of materials of which corners are constructed.
Page 405 - Every circumference of a. circle, whether the circle be large or small, is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes, and each minute into 60 equal parts called seconds.
Page 305 - And in all cases where the exterior lines of the townships, thus to be subdivided into sections or half sections, shall exceed or shall not extend six miles, the excess or deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or deducted from the western and northern ranges of sections or half sections in such township, according as the error may be in. running the lines from east to west, or from south to north.
Page 309 - In extending south or north boundaries of a township to the east, where the southeast or northeast corner cannot be established in the regular way, the same rule will be observed, except that such boundaries will be run east on a true line, and the east boundary run north or south, as the case may be. Allowance for the convergency of meridians will be made whenever necessary.
Page 318 - ... is to be marked the appropriate number of the particular one of the four sections, respectively, which such side faces; also on one side thereof are to be marked the numbers of its township and range; and to make such marks yet more conspicuous, (in manner aforesaid), a streak of red chalk is to be applied. In...
Page 317 - ... traced, the blazes to be opposite each other, coinciding in direction with the line where the trees stand very near it, and to approach nearer each other, the further the line passes from the blazed trees. Due care must ever be taken to have the lines so well marked as to be readily followed.
Page 315 - ... bottom"; or swamp, marsh, grove, and windfall, with the course of the same at both points of intersection; also the distances at which you begin to ascend, arrive at the top, begin to descend and reach the foot of all remarkable hills and ridges, with their courses, and estimated height, in feet, above the level land of the surrounding country, or above the bottom lands, ravines, or waters near which they are situated.
Page 22 - If foot for each degree of Fahrenheit. If a wind blows with or against the movement of the sound, its velocity must be added or subtracted. If it blows obliquely, the correction will evidently equal its velocity multiplied by the cosine of the angle which the direction of the wind makes with the direction of the sound.* If the gun be fired at each end of the base in turn, and the means of the times taken, the effect of the wind -will be eliminated. If a watch is not at hand, suspend a pebble to a...

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