# A treatise on surveying, comprising the theory and the practice, Volume 1

D. Appleton and company, 1897 - Surveying

### What people are saying -Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

### Contents

 aktioli nam h Surveying defined 1 First method 2 Third method 4 FiIth method 5 Stages of operation 6 Measurements required 7 Pins 10 How to chain 11
 Movements 195 Parallel plates 196 Watch telescope 197 The diagonal oyc piece 198 The theodolite 200 Definitions 201 General rules 202 Retrograde verniers 204

 Tallies 12 Doing up a chain 14 ARTtCLB PAGE 67 Division into triangles 39 Graphical multiplication 40 Division into trapezoids 41 Division into squares 42 Addition of widths 43 General rule 45 Examples 46 Special instruments 47 Planimeters 48 Trigonomelricalli 49 By sketch 56 Surveying by tie linos 57 Chain angles 58 Surveying by diagonals 59 Surveyors cross 60 Optical square 61 Diagonals and perpendiculars 62 Offsets 65 Platting offsets 68 Calculating content 69 Equalizing 70 Combination of methods 71 Field books 72 Inaccessible areas 76 106120 Problems on perpendiculars 77 121125 Problems on parallels 81 Hanging with rods 82 By perpendiculars 85 By symmetrical triangles 86 By harmonic conjugates 87 Across a valley 89 On water 90 Through a wood 91 By perpendiculars 92 B When One End of the Line is accessible 149151 By perpendiculars 93 By parallels 94 154155 By symmetrical triangles 95 By harmonic division 96 To an inaccessible intersection 97 By a parallelogram 98 Principle 100 The needle 101 The sights 102 The divided circle 103 The points 104 Levels 106 Verniers 107 107 Jacobs staff 108 The prismatic compass 109 Defects of the compass Ill 180 Taking bearings 112 AJtTtCLE PAOI 186 Local attraction 117 Marking of compass points 118 To change bearings 120 Line surveying 121 Checks by intersecting bearings 122 Canal maps 124 Field notes 125 Tests of accuracy 126 20S Method of intersection 127 Platting bearings 128 With a protractor 129 To close a plat 180 132 With a paper protractor 182 135 Stretching the paper 186 137 By transfer paper 138 By punctures 188 139 Reducing by squares 189 140 Orientation 141 Definitions 142 Calculation of latitudes and de partures 143 New method of calculating areas 162 Definitions 164 By the north star in the meridian 165 Times of crossing the meridian 167 By the north star at extreme elon gation 168 Observations 170 Setting out a meridian 172 To correct magnetic bearings 174 To survey a line with true bearings 176 Diurnal variation 177 Secular variation 178 Determination of change by inter polation 179 Dctsrmination of change by old lines 180 To run old lines 181 Remedy for evils of secular change 184 ABTtCLB PAGK 284 The transit 185 Surveyors transit 187 187 The telescope 188 The cross hairs 190 Instrumental parallax 192 Tho graduated circle 194
 Circle divided into degrees 205 Circle divided to 30 206 Circle divided to 20 208 Circle divided to 15 210 Arc of excess 211 Compass vernier 212 Object and necessity 213 First adjustment 214 Second adjustment 215 Third adjustment 218 Centering the cye pieoe 219 Fourth adjustment 221 To measure an angle 222 Reduction of high and low objects 223 Notation of angles 224 Angles of deflection 225 Lino surveying 226 Use of compass 227 Farm Burveying 228 Description 280 232 On sloping ground 288 235 Description and use 286 238 General directions 289 240 854358 Perpendiculars 242 Parallels 244 General method 245 When the line is inaccessible 246 Previous means 249 By triangulation 250 By triangulation 251 882888 Problems 252 General statement 257 When length and bearing of aside are wanting 258 When they are not adjacent 259 When the lengths of two udjacent sides are wanting 260 When they are not adjacent 261 When the bearing of two adjacent Bides are wanting 262 Its nature 288 264 To lay out circles 265 Land sold for taxes 266 Its object 267 To part off a trapezoid 268 To part off a triangle 269 To part off a quadrilateral 270 To part off a triangle 271 To part off any figure 272 To part off a quadrilateral 278 To part off a triangle 280 Methods 281 Straightening crooked fences 282 By lines parallel to a side 284 By lines starting from an angle 286 By lines passing through a given point within the triangle 287 Graphical solutions 289 By the shortest line 290 By lines parallel to aside 291 By lines starting from points in a side 293 By lines parallel to a side 294 General system 800 311 Order 824 324 General statement 825 332 The peg method of adjustment 372 The Boston rod 378 Second form of field book 385 Definition 401 Chain surveying 416 Leveling 418 TABLES 429 Table of chords 436 Tope 1 Substitutes for chain 15 15 Goniometer 16 16 Chain angles 17 17 Distances by pacing 18 18 Distances by visual anglos 19 19 Distances by sound 20 20 Angles 21 21 Straight lines 22 22 Perpendiculars 23 23 Drawing to scale 25 25 Scales 26 26 State surveys 27 27 Railroad surveys 28 28 Vernier scales 80 31 Sectoral scale 32 32 Material for scales 82 82 Horizontal measurement 85 85 Unit of content 86 86 Classification 87 87 Geometrically 89 89 Reading the vernier 114 114 To magnetize a needle 116 116 Copyright

### Popular passages

Page 401 - Every circumference is regarded as being divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts, called minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. These divisions are indicated by the marks ° ' ". Thus 28 degrees, 17 minutes, and 49 seconds, are written 28° 17' 49" Fractions of a second are best expressed decimally.
Page 301 - And in all cases where the exterior lines of the townships, thus to be subdivided into sections or half sections, shall exceed, or shall not extend, six miles, the excess or deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or deducted from the western and northern ranges of sections or half sections in such township, according as the error may be in running the lines from east to west, or from south to north...
Page 345 - AN ACT providing for the sale of the lands of the United States in the Territory NORTHWEST of the Ohio, and above the mouth of the Kentucky river...
Page 401 - Every circumference of a. circle, whether the circle be large or small, is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes, and each minute into 60 equal parts called seconds.
Page 310 - Meander lines will not be established at the segregation line between dry and swamp or overflowed land, but at the ordinary high-water mark of the actual margin of the rivers or lakes on which such swamp or overflowed lands border.
Page 408 - In the same way it may be proved that a : b : : sin. A : sin. B, and these two proportions may be written a : 6 : c : : sin. A : sin. B : sin. C. THEOREM III. t8. In any plane triangle, the sum of any two sides is to their difference as the tangent of half the sum of the opposite angles is to the tangent of half their difference. By Theorem II. we have a : b : : sin. A : sin. B.
Page 313 - ... traced, the blazes to be opposite each other, coinciding in direction with the line where the trees stand very near it, and to approach nearer each other, the further the line passes from the blazed trees. Due care must ever be taken to have the lines so well marked as to be readily followed.
Page 311 - ... bottom"; or swamp, marsh, grove, and windfall, with the course of the same at both points of intersection; also the distances at which you begin to ascend, arrive at the top, begin to descend and reach the foot of all remarkable hills and ridges, with their courses, and estimated height, in feet, above the level land of the surrounding country, or above the bottom lands, ravines, or waters near which they are situated.
Page 20 - If foot for each degree of Fahrenheit. If a wind blows with or against the movement of the sound, its velocity must be added or subtracted. If it blows obliquely, the correction will evidently equal its velocity multiplied by the cosine of the angle which the direction of the wind makes with the direction of the sound.* If the gun be fired at each end of the base in turn, and the means of the times taken, the effect of the wind -will be eliminated. If a watch is not at hand, suspend a pebble to a...
Page 345 - The public lands shall be divided by north and south lines run according to the true meridian, and by others crossing them at right angles, so as to form townships of six miles square...