A treatise on surveying, comprising the theory and the practice, Volume 1

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D. Appleton and company, 1897 - Surveying
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Contents

Tallies
12
Doing up a chain
14
ARTtCLB PAGE 67 Division into triangles
39
Graphical multiplication
40
Division into trapezoids
41
Division into squares
42
Addition of widths
43
General rule
45
Examples
46
Special instruments
47
Planimeters
48
Trigonomelricalli
49
By sketch
56
Surveying by tie linos
57
Chain angles
58
Surveying by diagonals
59
Surveyors cross
60
Optical square
61
Diagonals and perpendiculars
62
Offsets
65
Platting offsets
68
Calculating content
69
Equalizing
70
Combination of methods
71
Field books
72
Inaccessible areas
76
106120 Problems on perpendiculars
77
121125 Problems on parallels
81
Hanging with rods
82
By perpendiculars
85
By symmetrical triangles
86
By harmonic conjugates
87
Across a valley
89
On water
90
Through a wood
91
By perpendiculars
92
B When One End of the Line is accessible 149151 By perpendiculars
93
By parallels
94
154155 By symmetrical triangles
95
By harmonic division
96
To an inaccessible intersection
97
By a parallelogram
98
Principle
100
The needle
101
The sights
102
The divided circle
103
The points
104
Levels
106
Verniers 107
107
Jacobs staff
108
The prismatic compass
109
Defects of the compass Ill 180 Taking bearings
112
AJtTtCLE PAOI 186 Local attraction
117
Marking of compass points
118
To change bearings
120
Line surveying
121
Checks by intersecting bearings
122
Canal maps
124
Field notes
125
Tests of accuracy
126
20S Method of intersection
127
Platting bearings
128
With a protractor
129
To close a plat 180
132
With a paper protractor 182
135
Stretching the paper 186
137
By transfer paper
138
By punctures 188
139
Reducing by squares 189
140
Orientation
141
Definitions
142
Calculation of latitudes and de partures
143
New method of calculating areas
162
Definitions
164
By the north star in the meridian
165
Times of crossing the meridian
167
By the north star at extreme elon gation
168
Observations
170
Setting out a meridian
172
To correct magnetic bearings
174
To survey a line with true bearings
176
Diurnal variation
177
Secular variation
178
Determination of change by inter polation
179
Dctsrmination of change by old lines
180
To run old lines
181
Remedy for evils of secular change
184
ABTtCLB PAGK 284 The transit
185
Surveyors transit 187
187
The telescope
188
The cross hairs
190
Instrumental parallax
192
Tho graduated circle
194
Circle divided into degrees
205
Circle divided to 30
206
Circle divided to 20
208
Circle divided to 15
210
Arc of excess
211
Compass vernier
212
Object and necessity
213
First adjustment
214
Second adjustment
215
Third adjustment
218
Centering the cye pieoe
219
Fourth adjustment
221
To measure an angle
222
Reduction of high and low objects
223
Notation of angles
224
Angles of deflection
225
Lino surveying
226
Use of compass
227
Farm Burveying
228
Description 280
232
On sloping ground 288
235
Description and use 286
238
General directions 289
240
854358 Perpendiculars
242
Parallels
244
General method
245
When the line is inaccessible
246
Previous means
249
By triangulation
250
By triangulation
251
882888 Problems
252
General statement
257
When length and bearing of aside are wanting
258
When they are not adjacent
259
When the lengths of two udjacent sides are wanting
260
When they are not adjacent
261
When the bearing of two adjacent Bides are wanting
262
Its nature 288
264
To lay out circles
265
Land sold for taxes
266
Its object
267
To part off a trapezoid
268
To part off a triangle
269
To part off a quadrilateral
270
To part off a triangle
271
To part off any figure
272
To part off a quadrilateral
278
To part off a triangle
280
Methods
281
Straightening crooked fences
282
By lines parallel to a side
284
By lines starting from an angle
286
By lines passing through a given point within the triangle
287
Graphical solutions
289
By the shortest line
290
By lines parallel to aside
291
By lines starting from points in a side
293
By lines parallel to a side
294
General system 800
311
Order 824
324
General statement 825
332
The peg method of adjustment
372
The Boston rod
378
Second form of field book
385
Definition
401
Chain surveying 416 Leveling
418
TABLES
429
Table of chords
436
Tope
1
Substitutes for chain 15
15
Goniometer 16
16
Chain angles 17
17
Distances by pacing 18
18
Distances by visual anglos 19
19
Distances by sound 20
20
Angles 21
21
Straight lines 22
22
Perpendiculars 23
23
Drawing to scale 25
25
Scales 26
26
State surveys 27
27
Railroad surveys 28
28
Vernier scales 80
31
Sectoral scale 32
32
Material for scales 82
82
Horizontal measurement 85
85
Unit of content 86
86
Classification 87
87
Geometrically 89
89
Reading the vernier 114
114
To magnetize a needle 116
116
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Page 401 - Every circumference is regarded as being divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts, called minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. These divisions are indicated by the marks ' ". Thus 28 degrees, 17 minutes, and 49 seconds, are written 28 17' 49" Fractions of a second are best expressed decimally.
Page 301 - And in all cases where the exterior lines of the townships, thus to be subdivided into sections or half sections, shall exceed, or shall not extend, six miles, the excess or deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or deducted from the western and northern ranges of sections or half sections in such township, according as the error may be in running the lines from east to west, or from south to north...
Page 345 - AN ACT providing for the sale of the lands of the United States in the Territory NORTHWEST of the Ohio, and above the mouth of the Kentucky river...
Page 401 - Every circumference of a. circle, whether the circle be large or small, is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes, and each minute into 60 equal parts called seconds.
Page 310 - Meander lines will not be established at the segregation line between dry and swamp or overflowed land, but at the ordinary high-water mark of the actual margin of the rivers or lakes on which such swamp or overflowed lands border.
Page 408 - In the same way it may be proved that a : b : : sin. A : sin. B, and these two proportions may be written a : 6 : c : : sin. A : sin. B : sin. C. THEOREM III. t8. In any plane triangle, the sum of any two sides is to their difference as the tangent of half the sum of the opposite angles is to the tangent of half their difference. By Theorem II. we have a : b : : sin. A : sin. B.
Page 313 - ... traced, the blazes to be opposite each other, coinciding in direction with the line where the trees stand very near it, and to approach nearer each other, the further the line passes from the blazed trees. Due care must ever be taken to have the lines so well marked as to be readily followed.
Page 311 - ... bottom"; or swamp, marsh, grove, and windfall, with the course of the same at both points of intersection; also the distances at which you begin to ascend, arrive at the top, begin to descend and reach the foot of all remarkable hills and ridges, with their courses, and estimated height, in feet, above the level land of the surrounding country, or above the bottom lands, ravines, or waters near which they are situated.
Page 20 - If foot for each degree of Fahrenheit. If a wind blows with or against the movement of the sound, its velocity must be added or subtracted. If it blows obliquely, the correction will evidently equal its velocity multiplied by the cosine of the angle which the direction of the wind makes with the direction of the sound.* If the gun be fired at each end of the base in turn, and the means of the times taken, the effect of the wind -will be eliminated. If a watch is not at hand, suspend a pebble to a...
Page 345 - The public lands shall be divided by north and south lines run according to the true meridian, and by others crossing them at right angles, so as to form townships of six miles square...

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