A Treatise on the Law of Municipal Corporations, Volume 1

Front Cover
Callaghan, 1911 - Corporation law - 6425 pages
 

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Contents

The Ancient Cities 10 Semitic cities 2223
22
Samewalls gates and open places
24
Cities of Ancient Egypt 27
27
SameMemphis 29
29
SameThebes 30
30
Cities of ancient Chaldaea and AssyriaMesopota mia 3233
32
Ancient Nineveh
33
Other Assyrian cities 34
34
Cities of Babylonia 3536
35
Nebuchadnezzars Capital 36
36
BorsippaOpisSusaTyreSidon Jerusalem 3940
39
Nature of Babylonian culture and fall of Babylon 40
40
PhoeniciaSidon 43
43
Carthaginian supremacy 45
45
Greece 47
47
The Greek CityAthens 51
51
The Greek Ideal of a perfect civic life 54
54
Municipal institutions of ancient Rome 55
55
Samepreponderance of cities and towns and civic communities 57
57
City of ancient Rome and its municipal activities 5864
58
The Roman conception of a municipal corporation 6467
64
Secs Pages 32 European governments from the fall of Rome to the feudal system 6869
68
Samegeneral condition of towns 6970
69
The feudal system and its effect on municipal insti tutions 70
70
French communities during the middle ages 73
73
Charter privileges to French communities 7577
75
Commune distinguished from borough 7778
77
Medieval Flanders and Holland
78
Municipal institutions in early Spain 7982
79
Cities of ancient Mexico 8284
82
The Incas empireCuzcoLima 84
84
Practical importance of such knowledge 8586
85
General outline of local government in England 86
86
The English municipal corporation 93
93
The Teutonic farmer commonwealths planted in early England 95
95
Municipal institutions in England under Roman dominion 97
97
The early English borough and its influence on lo cal selfgovernment 99102
99
The granting of charters to communities in early England 103
103
The Great Charter 106108
106
First municipal corporation in Englandcharter to KingsronUponHu1l 108112
108
Subsequent granting of municipal charters 113115
113
Seca Pages 53 Control of local corporations by the crownjudi cial forfeiture of charters 115116
115
Purposes and effect of early English municipal cor porations 117120
117
Municipal government under feudal charters in England 121122
121
The guilds or fraternitiesstruggle of the town for freedom 122
122
Decadence of municipal government in England prior to the Reform Act 126
126
The English Municipal Corporation Reform Act 129
129
English municipal corporations under the reform act 132137
132
Modern English borough 137138
137
Grant of powers to local authorities and the meth ods of central control 138
138
The power of government is in the people 141142
141
Origin of American institutions 142143
142
The three general types of local government 143144
143
The township and county 145146
145
The New England and western township contrasted 146
146
The municipal corporation proper 148149
148
Organs of local government as public quasicorpo rations
149
Local selfgovernment is recognized under our sys temits benefit 152156
152
The value of local selfgovernmentviews of emi nent public men 157
157
Secs Pages 72 General progress making 160162
160
Government of modern Prussian citiesBerlin Hamburg 162
162
Secs Pages
164
Vienna 168
168
Budapest 169170
169
Copenhagen Stockholm and Christiana
171
Modern municipal government in France 172
172
Paris 174176
174
Cities of Belgium 176177
176
Cities of Switzerland 178179
178
Modern municipal problems in EnglandBirming hamLiverpoolManchester 179
179
London 182186
182
Modern municipal government in ScotlandGlas gow Edinburgh 187
187
Municipal Administration in the United States Its Nature and Complex Character Enumeration of Cer tain Defects and Suggestions for Improvement ...
189
Samerapid increase of urban population 191
191
Samerapid increase of urban population in the United States 193
193
Public and private character of municipal adminis tration 203
203
The municipal corporation is a governmental insti tution created to spend not to make money Its purpose is political not business 207211
207
Nature and scope of municipal administration indi cated 211212
211
Elements of the problem of municipal government
213
Samecommission plan 217
217
Sameautocratic mayor 219
219
The true conception of governmentimportance of form of municipal organization 220
220
Difficulties of material improvement 223225
223
Education in the science of municipal government 225
225
The use of public powers for private advantage 227
227
Proper performance of civic obligations 230
230
Failure to separate state and national politics from local public issues 235
235
State interference with municipal affairscities should be free and selfgoverning 238
238
CHAPTER 2
242
The corporation describedvarious definitions 243245
243
The corporation is distinct from its members 245
245
Elements of the corporation enumerated 247248
247
Common law powers of the corporation
248
Municipal corporation defined 253
253
What included in the term municipal corporation 259
259
The state as a municipal corporation 265
265
Corporation for municipal purposes 266
266
in Municipal corporations distinguished from quasi corporations 269
269
How municipal corporations differ from counties 272277
272
Municipal corporations distinguished from school districts 277
277
School districts have statutory powers only 280281
280
Secs Pages 115 The New England town contrasted with the mu nicipal corporation 281
281
People and place necessary to constitute a corpora tion 286287
286
Membership in a municipal corporation 288289
288
Elements of the municipal corporation enumerated 289290
289
Origin of private municipal capacity 290291
290
CHAPTER 3
292
MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS 292372
293
Power to create vested in state 294
294
Creation by general or special actthe method pre scribed to be followed
297
The congress has power to create corporations
298
In generalrestrictions considered
299
Early corporations created by special actsevil effects 300301
300
General incorporation laws required and special acts usually forbidden 301
301
Creation under constitutional provisions 305
305
Effect of general statutes on special charters 308310
308
Special chartered cities and towns may incorpo rate under the general laws 310
310
Surrender of special charter and organizing under general lawseffect on municipal government 312
312
Classification 314318
314
Constitutional provisions
316
Advancement and reduction in class or grade 318
318
Compliance with statutory provisions in general irregularities 320
320
Secs Pages 134 Sameillustrative cases 322
322
Same subject 324
324
Incorporation by court 325
325
Same subject 327
327
Separate bodies possessing concurrent jurisdiction
329
Samestatutory provisions 330
330
The petition for incorporationsufficiency 332
332
Samequalification of signers 334
334
Sameright to withdraw signatures 335
335
Notice of pendency of proceedings to incorporate 336
336
Hearing of application for incorporation 337
337
Court order of incorporation 338
338
Election on creation and change of boundaries 339
339
Sameofficial action thereon
342
Doctrine of implication 344
344
De facto corporations 347348
347
State recognition 349351
349
Acceptance of charter 351
351
Proof of corporate existencejudicial notice pleading 355
355
Same 358359
358
Samehow incorporation proved 359
359
Samelocation of corporation 360
360
Questioning creationquo warrantocertiorari 362
362
Same 365367
365
Constitutional provisions 367368
367
Sametitle to actillustrative cases 368370
368
Same subject 370371
370
Same subject 371372
371
Sameclassification of municipal corporations
373
Legislature may exercise compulsory authority
384
Corporations 292372
389
Sameby commissions 436
436
Corporate powers or municipal purposes
446
Laws of a general nature shall have a uniform
454
Classification of municipal corporations authorized
460
Same subject
467
Sameillustrative cases 474
474
Cases illustrating general laws as distinguished
482
Secs Pages 211 The legislature cannot divide or add classes 485486
485
Special or local laws to take effect on event of fu ture contingency or within limited time 486
486
Samelocal option laws 492494
492
Curative acts as special or local laws 494495
494
Laws to give effect to constitutional provisions
496
Changing special municipal charters
497
Summary of principles applied to test the validity of classification 498499
498
Legislative Control of Corporate Property 219 Legislative control of corporate propertygeneral consideration 500
500
Samewater works 503
503
Sameparks
506
Samewharves
507
Samemiscellaneous corporate property 509511
509
Sametransfer to another class of public officers 511512
511
Samegeneral doctrine stated 512513
512
CHAPTER 5
514
Power delegated to municipal corporations to reg ulate streets 518521
518
Sameright is public 522
522
Legislative Control of Funds and Revenues 230 Legislative control of funds and revenue 524
524
Same subject 526
526
Secs Pages
528
Legislative power to compel the levy of taxes 535
535
Same subjecthours of laborvalidating contract 542
542
Result of absence of affirmative constitutional pro
551
Right of local selfgovernment exists without
558
Secs Pages
565
Actionsvariance 571
571
CHAPTER 6
577
CHAPTER 7
584
Same subject 591592
591
Power of state in establishing and changing muni
598
Secs Pages
603
Discretion in submitting question of extension
612
Samedefinitions of platted lots blocks 621623
621
Reasonableness of annexationcontiguous or
627
Detachment of municipal territory 633
633
Samesufficiency of ordinance 639640
639
Sameplat or plan of property to be annexed
645
Secs Pages 288 Sameaction to test validity of proceeding 649650
649
Same subjectpresumptionsacquiescence 651653
651
Samecollateral attack on annexation proceedings 653
653
Samereview 657659
657
Defects may be cured
659
Condition of public property and debts after change apportionment 662
662
Taxation and exemptions on change of limits 665
665
Municipal subdivisions and wards 668
668
Same subject 671
671
CHAPTER 8
674
What changes will not constitute dissolution
675
Repeal of charter may destroy 678
678
Inhabitants may not dissolvenonuser 680682
680
Failure to elect officers will not dissolve 682
682
Failure to elect officers dissolves when statute so provides 684
684
May be dissolved only by statemethod 685
685
Dissolution under the English law 688689
688
Dissolution under the Roman law
689
Courts have no inherent power to declare forfei ture of charter 691692
691
Effect of judgment of ouster on quo warranto 692693
692
Rights of creditors of extinct corporation pro tectedcommon law rule rejected 693
693
Dissolution of illegal corporation de jure successor liable 697698
697
Extinguishing by dividinglegislative apportion ment of property and debts 698
698
Sameillustrative cases 701
701
Absorption by annexation or consolidation 703
703
Dissolution and reorganizationnew is successor of old when 706711
706
Samesuspension of governmental functionsre vival 711713
711
Dissolution without substitution 714
714
CHAPTER 9
717
Nature and purpose of charter 718720
718
Various definitions of charters 720721
720
Municipal charter defined and described 721722
721
Same subjectcontains the municipal powers and prescribes the form of organization 722
722
Secs Pages 322 Samethe scope of the functions of municipal gov ernment
725
Constitutional and legislative municipal charters 726
726
Special municipal powers in California
728
Municipal Organization of St Louis 325 Characteristic features of a constitutional charter St Louis 729731
729
Samegeneral outline of municipal government and relation of the city to the state 732
732
Powers and responsibility of officers under the St Louis charter 733
733
Mayor authorized to approve only such appointees as mentioned in the charter 735
735
Department of public improvementsapproval of appointees 736
736
Samelegislative interpretation of presidents supervision 737738
737
Mayors general supervisory control 738
738
Conclusions as to approval of appointees in the de partment of public improvements 739
739
General functions of the council
741
Should the mayor be given iore power? 742
742
Charters of Various CitiesChicago San Francisco Los Angeles Greater New York Galveston and Des Moines 336 Municipal organization of Chicago ...
744
Charter of San Francisco 747
747
Charter of Los Angeles 749751
749
Municipal organization of Greater New York 751
751
Secs Pages 340 Commission planGalveston 756
756
The Des Moines plan of city government 758760
758
Proof of charterjudicial notice 760761
760
Construction of charter 761762
761
Same subject 763
763
Legislature may amend and repeal municipal char ters 765
765
Direct amendment of constitutional charters 767
767
Same subject 769
769
Indirect or legislative amendment of constitution al charters 771
771
Amendments forbidden by special or local laws 773
773
CHAPTER 10
776
Secs Pages 350389 THE NATURE CONSTRUCTION AND EXERCISE OF GENERAL CORPO RATE POWERS 776861
777
Usual powers 77779
778
General rule as to municipal powers stated 779
779
Rules of construction 786
786
Same subjectreasonable construction 788
788
in the enactment of ordinances 791
791
Construction of power to regulate 792793
792
Implied or Incidental Powers 357 General rule as to implied or incidental powers stated 794
794
Implied powers are confined to municipal affairs 796
796
Cannot engage in private business
798
Implied power to enact ordinances 799800
799
Implied powers respecting offices and officers 800
800
Implied powers as to police and sanitary regula tions
802
Appropriations as donations forbidden 803804
803
Appropriations for celebrations entertainments etc void 804806
804
Bounties to soldiers 806809
806
Expenditures to obtain or oppose legislation 809810
809
Miscellaneous illustrations of implied powers 810813
810
Same subject 814815
814
Exercise of powers by virtue of usage or custom 815
815
Same subject 817819
817
Execution of Powers 371 Method of exercise of powers 819821
819
Same subject 821
821
When ordinance necessary to exercise power 823824
823
Same subjectlegislative or executive powers
824
Same subjectselfenforcing charter provisions
825
Judiciary will not control the exercise of discre tionary powers 826
826
Same subject 827830
827
Limitation of rule of nonjudicial interference 831
831
Secs Pages
833
Public powers cannot be surrendered or delegated 839
839
Legislative authority cannot be delegated 846
846
Ministerial duties may be delegated 852
852
Special or Particular and Miscella
862
Nature of wharves and power to construct
880
publicstate may grant control to municipal corporations 883884
883
Wharvesownership of land 884885
884
Municipal corporation cannot abdicate control of wharves
886
Batture
887
Power to charge and collect wharfage 887888
888
Wharfage charge as an interference with interstate commerce
891
Character of public ferries 892
892
Lease and operation of ferries 897898
897
License and taxation of ferries etc 898899
898
License for privilege of navigationregulating or interfering with foreign or interstate commerce 899
899
Power to construct and maintain municipal bridges over navigable waters 902906
902
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