A treatise on the law of municipal corporations, Volume 5

Front Cover
Callaghan & company, 1913 - Law - 6425 pages

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Contents

VOLUME V
4323
Exercise of power 6 The lien
4325
Validity and remedies 8 Collection and enforcement 1 Nature Constitutional Restrictions and Power to Levy Sees Pages 2017 Nature of special assess...
4326
Sametheory is benefit conferred 4329
4329
Constitutional restrictions 4333
4333
Samedouble taxation and equal protection of the law 43354336
4335
Sameuniformity and equality 43364340
4336
Power to levy assessments 4341
4341
Definition and effect of status 48744875
4874
Purchaser from a bona fide purchaser 48754876
4875
Gross negligence effect of 48764877
4876
Actual notice
4877
Sameexistence and contents of enabling stat ute 48784879
4878
Sees Pages 2319 Samedebt limit provisions
4880
Samematters appearing upon face of bonds 48814882
4881
Samedecisions of supreme court
4882

Sameconstruction of power 4343
4343
Law must authorize improvement when made 4345
4345
Assessment for improvement already made 43474348
4347
Authority to make improvement or expendi ture 43484349
4348
Purposes of special assessments 4349
4349
Samestreet improvements in general
4351
Samesamenature of street improvements 4352 5354
4352
Sees Pages 2030 Original construction reconstruction and re pairs 43544360
4354
Sameeffect of provisions for repairs on va lidity of assessment 43614362
4361
Samechanging course or width and vacating streets
4363
Toll roads and turn pikes
4365
Street sprinkling and cleaning 43664367
4366
Sewers and drains 43674371
4367
Samereconstructing or repairing 43714372
4371
Lighting plant
4373
Parks and market places 4375
4375
Miscellaneous objects 43764377
4376
Necessity of benefit to property by improve ment 43774383
4377
Samegeneral or special benefits 4383
4383
Samecharacter and extent 43844388
4384
Sameeffect of like existing improvement 4389
4389
Assessment of benefits where part of property taken 43914392
4391
Vacant or property not improved 4392
4392
Unplatted and rural lands 43934395
4393
Railroad property 4395
4395
Samevarious uses illustrated 43994400
4399
Assessment districts 4400
4400
Sewers and drains 44044407
4404
Property beyond municipal area 44074408
4407
Waterworks 44084409
4408
Property abutting 44094411
4409
Sameplatted and unplatted lands 44114412
4411
Property fronting 44124413
4412
Property contiguous adjoining and adjacent 44134414
4413
Property not abutting on part of street
4414
Sees Pages 2061 Restricting property by depth or distance
4416
Property Exempt 2063 Power to exemptconstruction 44174419
4417
Religious and charitable institutions 44l9
4419
Educational institutions
4420
Cemeteries and burial grounds 4421
4421
Homestead property
4423
Making of or payment for part of improve ment by property owners
4424
Exemption by agreement 44254426
4425
Exercise of Power 2070 Municipal officers empowered to make assess ments 44264428
4426
Samecommissioners 44284429
4428
Competency of commissioners 44294431
4429
Oath of commissioners 44314432
4431
Notice of assessment to property owners 4432
4432
Sufficiency of the notice 44364437
4436
Service of noticepublication 4437
4437
Hearing on proposed assessment 4439
4439
Time for making assessment 4440
4440
Samewith reference to completion of
4442
Levy of assessment 4444
4444
Mode of assessment 44454446
4445
Sameland in bulk or separate lots or parcels 4446
4446
Samedivision of improvement into parts 44494450
4449
Sametwo or more improvements in one as sessment 44504452
4450
Sameagainst part or lot or tract
4452
Apportionment of assessments 4454
4454
Sameaccording to benefits 44554458
4455
Sameby front foot 4459 446T
4459
Samesuperficial area
4461
Sees Pages 2091 Sameeach lot for the improvement in front of it 44624463
4462
Sameomission of property
4463
Samededuction of damages
4464
Samecosts and expenses included 44664467
4466
Samewhat may not be included 44674468
4467
Confirmation correction revision or setting aside of assessment 4468
4468
Samenature of proceedingsnotice 44724474
4472
Sameby courtpetition or application 44744475
4474
Samejurisdiction of court 4475
4475
Sameevidence 44764477
4476
Samejudgment
4477
Assessment record 4478
4478
Sufficiency of certificate warrant or tax bill 4484
4484
The Lien 2106 The lienmust be created by lawconstruc tion of laws 4488
4488
Samesteps required to perfect 4490
4490
Samewhen lien attaches 4491
4491
Sameduration and discharge 4492
4492
Sameorder of priority 44944499
4494
Nonobservance of law authorizing improve ment 44994501
4499
Defects and irregularities affecting validity of assessment 45014502
4501
Failure to advertise for bids for the work 45024503
4502
Legal existence of street or way improved 45034504
4503
1mprovement extending on private property 4504
4504
Change of title to avoid assessment 45054506
4505
Presumption of validity of assessment 45064510
4506
When and by whom assessment may be ques tioned 45104512
4510
Estoppel to question validity of assessment 45124513
4512
Sees Pages 2120 Sameacquiescence 45l345l7
4513
Sameby petitioning for improvement 45174519
4517
Sameby recital in deed 45194520
4519
Sameby payment or part payment
4520
Sameby failure to object or appeal 45214522
4521
Samesameapportionment of assessment
4522
Equitable reliefinjunction 45234526
4523
Reassessments 4526
4527
Appeal from assessment 45294532
4529
Certiorari to review assessment 45324534
4532
Nature of proceedingsin rem or in personam 45354539
4535
Form of actionvalid assessment is basis 45394540
4539
Sameaction at law 4540
4540
Samewarrants
4541
Samedistress warrant
4542
Samein equity
4543
When assessment becomes delinquent 45444545
4544
Demand of payment
4545
Venue of suit or action 45504551
4550
Parties plaintiff 4551
4551
Sameassignee 45534554
4553
Parties defendantowners of land 4554 455
4554
Samewife of property owner 45564557
4556
Sameall parties in interestmortgagee
4557
Samemunicipalitystate 45584559
4558
Joinder of actions
4559
Counter claim 45664567
4566
Sale of property 45674568
4567
The purchasers title 4568
4568
Redemption of the property 45694570
4569
CHAPTER 39
4571
Collection and distribution of funds 5 Appropriations 1 Introductory Sees Pages 2157 Necessity for revenue
4572
Sources of revenue 4573
4573
Control of legislature 4574
4574
Power to Borrow Loan and Give Notes or Issue Bills 2160 Power to borrow money 45754580
4575
Power to execute promissory notes 4580
4580
Power to issue bills to be used as currency
4583
General rules 45864589
4586
Must be for public municipal purpose 45894592
4589
Samepower of legislature 45934594
4593
Sameillustrations of what are and what are not public purposes 4595
4595
Samemoral claims
4601
Sameaid to private corporations or associa tions 4604
4604
Sameconstitutional prohibitions against do nations 4609
4609
Conditions precedent and procedure 46134614
4613
Necessity for first making provision for pay ment of debt 46144618
4614
Samerequiring provision for levy of taxes 4618
4618
Certificate that funds are applicable or indebt edness lawful
4622
Sees Pages 2177 Fiscal year 46254626
4625
Estimates of probable expenditures
4626
Samegeneral expense fund
4629
Adjustment of accounts with state or county 46304631
4630
Surplus funds at end of fiscal year
4632
Payment of debts 4633
4633
Effect of insufficiency of fund 4634
4634
Appropriations 2187 Definition classification and power to make 46364637
4636
Necessity for 46374638
4637
Annual appropriation 46384641
4638
Ordinance passage and contents 4641
4641
Effect of appropriations
4643
CHAPTER 40
4645
Authority to hold elections
4646
Necessity for election 4647
4647
How question submitted 46534655
4653
Notice of election 4655
4655
Form and scope of question or questions sub mitted 4659
4659
Conduct and time of election 4667
4667
Samecounting the vote returns and record 46694670
4669
Number of votes necessary 4670
4670
Effect of irregularities and attacks on validity of election 4672
4672
Effect of favorable vote 4675
4675
Successive elections 46774678
4677
Sees Pages
4680
Samedebt limits as prescribed by legislature 46904691
4690
Samedebt of political division as indebted
4697
Sameright to compel payment as affecting
4706
Samedebts in anticipation of collection
4713
Sameinterest as indebtedness
4719
Sees Pages 2227 Effect of money in treasury to meet liabilities
4722
Sameobligations payable from special as sessments 4723
4723
Sameliability payable solely from income of property 47254726
4725
Samefund created by levy of tax 47264729
4726
Time when indebtedness arises 473
4729
Contracts for payments for a term of years 4733
4733
Evading debt limit provisions 47364737
4736
Sameevading debt limits by taking lease in stead of purchasing
4737
Property Taxable
4738
Computation of amount of indebtedness actu ally outstanding 47404744
4740
Samesinking funds 47454746
4745
Effect of exceeding debt limits and remedies of creditors 47464751
4746
Sameeffect of debt limit upon municipal acts in general 4751
4751
CHAPTER 42
4753
Power to issue 47554756
4755
Sameaudit and allowance of claim as condi tion precedent 4756
4756
Sameissuance at a discount
4757
Samesignature 4759
4759
Delivery
4760
Warrants not negotiable 47614763
4761
1nterest on warrants 47634765
4763
Rights of holders of warrants in general
4765
Samefrom what fund payable 4766
4766
Samepriority in payment 47684770
4768
Samewarrants as receivable in payment of taxes etc 477
4770
Assignment of warrants 477i
4771
Reissuance funding and calling in for exam ination 47724773
4772
Actions on warrants 4773
4773
Samedefenses 4775
4775
Samestatutes of limitation as barring actions on warrants 4777
4777
Mandamus 4779 478o
4780
MUNICIPAL BONDS
4781
Power to issue bonds 3 Form and contents 4 Issuance delivery and conditions precedent 5 Sale or other disposition of bonds 6 Negotiability and right...
4782
Bona fide purchasers 9 Recitals in bonds 10 Payment 11 Remedies
4783
Defenses to actions on bonds 13 Suggestions to investigators of validity of bond is sue 1 Definitions Kinds of Bonds and Other General Con TIONS ...
4784
Importance of the law as to municipal bonds 47864787
4786
Kinds of bonds
4787
Samecoupon bonds 47884789
4788
Sameconvertible coupons bonds and reg istered coupon bonds 47894790
4789
Samerailroad aid bonds 479
4790
Sameimprovement bonds 4791
4791
Samefunding and refunding bonds
4798
1nterest 48014802
4803
Who may attack bonds
4805
Decisions of state courts as binding on feder eral courts 48084810
4808
Power to 1ssue Bonds 2277 1n general 4810
4810
CHAPTER 39
4811
1mplied power to issue bonds 48124815
4812
Express power to issue bonds and construction thereof 48154820
4815
Whether bonds issued for a public purpose 4820
4820
Power to issue negotiable bonds as con ferred by power to issue bonds 4822
4822
Funding and refunding bonds 4823
4823
Railroad aid bonds 4827
4827
Debt limit provisions 4831
4831
Form and Contents 2285 General rules 4833
4833
To whom made payable 48354836
4835
Signature 48364837
4836
Samenecessity for purchasers to investigate signatures 48374839
4837
Provisions as to maturity of bonds 4839
4839
Seal
4842
Date
4843
Sees Pages 2294 Medium of payment
4844
Recitals 4845 4947
4845
Time for issuance and when deemed issued 4847
4847
Delivery 48484849
4848
Proceedings before issuance of bonds 48494852
4849
Samepetition or consents 4852
4852
Sameelection as condition precedent to au thority to issue bonds
4855
Sale or Other Disposition of Bonds 2303 Disposition of bonds 4856
4856
Sale at less than par 4860
4860
Negotiability of bonds 48624864
4862
What law governs
4864
Stolen or lost bonds 48654866
4865
Estoppel and Ratification 2309 When municipality bound by ratification or es toppel 4866
4866
Curative statutes 48704871
4870
Estoppel as to conditions precedent by mere is suance of bonds
4872
Sameperformance of conditions precedent
4883
Samelis pendens as notice
4884
Recitals in Bonds 2326 What are recitals and purpose thereof 48854886
4885
Effect of recitals in state courts as compared with federal courts 48874888
4887
Samerule in Missouri 4888
4888
Who may rely on estoppel by recitals
4889
Authority to make recitals 48904891
4890
Sufficiency of general recitals 4891
4891
2333 Recitals as to constitutional provisions in gen eral
4893
Recitals contrary to matters of record 48954896
4895
Recitals as to ordinances resolutions or or ders of court 48964899
4896
2337 Recitals as to consideration
4899
Recitals as to purpose of issue 4900
4900
2339 Recitals as estoppel to deny compliance with conditions 4902
4902
Samerules applied to railway aid bonds 49104911
4910
Recitals as affecting bonds in excess of debt limits 49114916
4911
Recitals in funding or refunding bonds 4916 49x9
4916
Recitals showing on their face statutory pro visions not complied with
4919
Sinking funds 4921
4921
CHAPTER 40
4922
Enjoining bond issue 4924
4924
Mandamus to compel issuance of bonds
4926
Remedies where bonds invalid 4930
4930
Introductory 4932
4932
Want of power to issue 49344935
4934
Debt limit exceeded
4935
Municipality only a de facto one
4937
Suggestions to Investigators of Validity of Bond Issue 2357 In general 49384940
4938
CHAPTER 44
4941
Scope of chapter
4943
Power of legislature to delegate authority to tax 49454948
4945
Conditions precedent to levy 49484949
4948
Sameelections 49494951
4949
Poll taxes 49554958
4955
Collateral inheritance tax
4958
Power as conferred by constitution 4959
4961
Occupation and income taxes 4960
4962
Sameconstruction of statutes granting power 49654966
4965
Tax must be for a public purpose 4966
4966
Revoking or limiting power of taxation 49714972
4971
Power as lost by user or nonuser
4972
Duty to Levy Taxes 2376 Duty to levy and enforcement thereof 4973
4973
Power of legislature to compel levy of taxes 49754977
4975
Constitutional Restrictions 2378 1n General 49774978
4977
2379 0 power of legislature to tax for municipal purposes 49784979
4978
Uniformity 49794980
4979
Sametaxing districts 49804981
4980
Samepower to tax one species of property only
4981
Tax limits in general 49834987
4983
Tax limits as mandatory
4987
Whether all municipal taxes included within limit 49884991
4988
Effect of levy above tax limit 499
4992
Property not receiving benefits
4997
Samevessels 5001
5001
Property annexed 50025003
5002
Property of grantees of franchises 503
5005
Municipal bonds
5006
Federal means or agencies
5007
Rural property 5008
5008
Exemption from Taxation 2399 1n general 5010
5010
Construction of exemption provisions 5015
5015
Repeal or revocation 5016
5016
Exemption as assignable
5017
Procedure to levy taxes 5020
5020
Sameassessment 5025
5025
Payment and collection 5031
5031
Sameremedies for collection 5034
5034
Samesale for unpaid taxes 5037
5037
Forfeiture and penalties for nonpayment 5038
5038
Remedies against municipality where tax wrongful 50395041
5039
Sameaction for damages
5041
CHAPTER 45
5044
Police force in general 5045
5045
Samepolice commissioners
5048
Policemen and firemen as public officers 5049
5049
Legislative control of fire and police depart ments 5050
5050
Who may appoint policemen and firemen
5052
Removal or suspension 5053
5053
Salaries and compensation 5054
5054
Pensions 50555056
5055
Reimbursement for expenses incurred
5056
Criminal responsibility
5057
Samepowers of police officers to arrest
5058
Liability of municipality for failure to provide aequate fire protection
5062
Liability of municipality for torts of policemen 5063
5063
Liability of municipality for torts of fire de partment 5068
5068
CHAPTER 46
5072
Eligibility of members of board of education
5076
Powers of boards of education 5077
5077
Sameto make rules governing school 5080
5080
Removal of commissioners
5081
Employment of teacher 5082
5082
License to teach 5083
5083
Removal of teachers 5084
5084
Sees Pages 2444 Compensation of teacher 50855086
5085
Power to expel pupils
5086
Control of pupils away from school 5087
5087
CHAPTER 47
5089
Municipal administration of charity 5091
5091
Legislature may divide state for purpose of relief and support of poor
5093
Power of municipal corporation to furnish support to poor 50945095
5094
Samedelegation of power forbidden 5095
5095
Liability of municipal corporation for relief of poor by others 5096
5096
Settlement of pauper 5098
5098
Overseers of the poor 50995100
5099
Boards of charities and correction 51005101
5100
Property in trust for charitable uses 5102
5102
Municipal hospitals asylums etc 51035105
5103
Sameliability for damages 5io5 5IQ6
5105
Sameproperty
5106
Juvenile courts 51105117
5110
Workhouse 51175118
5117
CHAPTER 48
5119
Conditions precedentpresentation of claims 51235128
5123
Samenotice of intention to sue 5128
5128
Sameto whom claim to be presented 51295130
5129
Sametime within which claims must be pre senteddelay 51305132
5130
Sees Pages 2469 Samestatement of claim 5132
5132
Sameverification of claimwaiver
5133
Allowance of claims 5l36
5136
Sameeffect of allowance or disallowance 5137
5137
Auditing boards and officers 5139 5 Hi 2475 Review of decisions touching claims 51415143
5141
Assignment of claims 5143 545
5143
CHAPTER 42
5145
Priority of claims
5146
Who authorized to compromise 5l49 5l5l
5149
Method of compromise
5151
Arbitration of claims 5l51 553
5153
Mode of submission of arbitration 5155
5155
Actions by and Against Municipal Corporations in General
5157
Criminal liability 1 General Consideration 2485 Scope of charter 51585160
5158
QUO WARRANTO
5159
Municipal corporation may sue and be sued 5160
5160
Sameremedies 5161
5161
Liability on contracts 5162
5162
Limitations of actions 5164
5164
Conditions precedent 51665167
5166
Venue 5167
5167
Form of action
5170
2494 Parties 5173
5173
Pleadings 51775182
5177
Process form and service 5182
5182
Representation by counselappearance 51845186
5184
Defenses
5187
Judgment
5188
Enforcement of judgment 5189
5189
Costs 51915192
5191
Particular Actions 2502 Equitable remediesinjunction in general 5192
5192
Sameenactment of ordinance 5l955l97
5195
Sameenforcement of ordinance 51975198
5197
1njunction by municipal corporation 5198
5198
Creditors remedymandamus 5200
5200
Recovery of involuntary payments made
5201
municipal corporations 5201
5202
Certiorarinature an object of the writ 5203
5203
Samewhen appeal or writ of error lies 5207
5207
Sameas writ of review 5208
5208
Sameto review acts of judicial character 52095213
5209
Sameapplication for and direction of writ 52135214
5213
Samereturn of writ 5214
5214
Samewhat reviewable 52155218
5215
Samematters of practicejudgment 5218
5218
Prohibition 52195223
5219
Garnishment of municipal corporations 5223
5223
Sameequitable garnishment 5226
5226
Criminal Liability 2519 1n general 52285230
5228
Liability for maintenance of a nuisance in gen eral 52305231
5230
Samedefective sewer system
5231
Samebridges
5233
Sees Pages 2525 Nature and purpose 5234
5234
Samewhen writ will issue 5237
5237
Discretion in instituting proceedings
5239
To test existence of officeouster 5242
5242
Questioning legal existence of municipal cor poration 52445246
5244
Questioning annexation proceedings 5246
5246
Ouster from exercise of franchise 5248
5248
2533 Parties plaintiff 52495251
5249
Parties defendant 5251
5251
2S35 Sufficiency of information 5253
5253
Subsequent pleadings 5255
5255
2537 Matters of practiceevidence 5256
5256
Reliefjudgment 52585259
5258
CHAPTER 51
5260
Scope of chapter
5261
Nature and object of writ 5262
5262
Discretion in granting writ 5266
5266
Laches as barremedy unavailing 5267
5267
Controlling considerations 5268
5268
Sameclear legal right to performance 5270
5270
Sameto compel performance of official act nature of duty 5271
5271
Samedemand and refusal of alleged duty 5272
5272
Sees Pages 2548 Samediscretionary acts 5273
5273
Sameministerial acts 52765277
5276
Mayor and other executive and administrative officers subject to mandamus 5277
5277
To induct into or reinstate to office or public situation 5278
5278
To compel transfer of books etc of office 5279
5279
To compel auditing claims 5280
5280
To compel payment of claims or issue of war rant for salaries fixed by law 5281
5281
To compel signing or issuing warrants
5282
To compel payment of indebtedness
5283
CHAPTER 50
5284
To compel levy of assessments 5285
5285
To compel calling an election 5287
5287
Concerning elections and officers thereof 5288
5288
To compel award of contract 5289
5289
CHAPTER 43
5290
To compel the granting of licenses and permits 5293
5293
To compel payment of judgmentreturn of execution unsatisfied 5295
5295
Miscellaneous instances 5299
5299
Procedure 2567 Applicationalternative writ
5302
Parties 5303
5303
Sufficiency of alternative writ 5304
5304
How writ directed against municipal corpora tion
5305
The return 5306
5306
Subsequent pleadingsmatters of practice 5307
5307
Peremptory writ 5309
5309
Sees Pages 2574 Scope of chapter 531 r
5312
Samestatutory provisions 5316
5316
2577 SameNew York statutes 538
5318
Sameeffect of remedy at law 5325
5325
Sametitle to office not triable 5326
5326
Action by attorney general of state 5327
5327
Certiorari as remedy 5329 533
5329
Actions on behalf of municipality 533
5330
Right of taxpayers to intervene or defend 5335
5335
Motive of plaintiff immaterial 5336
5336
Who may sue 53385339
5338
Samepecuniary interest 5339
5339
Sameinjury different from that sustained by other taxpayers 53435344
5343
Sameestoppel to sue 5344
5344
Time to sue and laches 5345
5345
Acts which may be enjoined 5346
5346
Samepassage and enforcement of ordi nances 5349535
5349
Municipal Bonds
5350
Samemaking or performance of illegal con tracts 5353
5353
Sameletting of contracts where competitive bids 53565357
5356
Sameincurring indebtedness above debt limit
5357
Samelevy and collection of taxes 5360
5360
Samepayments 5365
5365
Samecollection of judgment 53665367
5366
Samemisuse of municipal property 5367
5367
Demand before suit 5368
5368
Parties pleading and proof 5369
5369
Judgment 53725373
5372

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