Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery: New Frontiers in Vision

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Josef F. Bille, C.F.H. Harner, Frieder Lösel
Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 31, 2003 - Medical - 297 pages
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A great deal of progress has been made since the publication of the first edition of Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery. It is now generally accepted that wavefront technology is defining a new standard of practice. The second edition of Aberration-Free Refractive Surgery expands on the first with in depth descriptions of advances made in this exciting field as well as glimpses of what to expect next. This volume provides the practitioner with solid background information from top researchers. The book will be indispensable to those practitioners and other optics professionals who wish to extend their knowledge of customi zed refractive surgery into an understanding of the underpinning technology. New subjects covered in this edition include cyclotorsional eye tracking, cy clotorsional registration, Variable Spot Scanning algorithms and underlying mathematical principles, and recent clinical results that support the conten tion that wavefront guided procedures are the new standard of practice for refractive surgery. In comparison to the first edition, due to the addition of new chapters the numbering of the previous chapters occasionally has been changed. For ex ample, Chap. 11, Wavefront Driven Custom Ablation: First Clinical Results, the so-called Heidelberg Study, was previously Chap. 7 in the first edition, whereas in this second edition the current clinical status of customized re fractive surgery results is presented in Chap. 13: Reviewing the Wavefmnt Clinical Trials: Myopia, Huperopia, and Eyes with Reduced Acuity.
 

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Contents

1 The Development of Wavefront Technology and its Application to Ophthalmology
1
13 History
3
14 Principle of Aberration Measurement
4
15 Definitions of Optical Imaging Quality
7
152 Optical Aberration Index
8
154 Point Spread Function
9
161 Adaptive Optics in Astronomy
10
162 History of Adaptive Optics at the University of Heidelberg
11
913 Laser System
161
93 Biological Changes Leading to Registration Errors
165
931 Changing Position of the Pupil Center
166
94 Conclusion
169
10 Variable Spot Scanning and WavefrontGuided Laser Vision Correction
171
101 The VSS Approach to Ablation
172
103 Predictive Ablation Modeling
174
104 Ablation Geometry
175

163 Performance of Foil Mirrors
12
164 Comparison of Foil Mirrors and Microchip Mirror
15
18 Demonstration of CLAOBille Aberrometer
19
19 Conclusion
22
for Vision and Ophthalmology
25
22 Wavefront Optometers
26
24 WavefrontSensing Optometer
28
25 Equivalency of Subjective Ray Tracing and Outgoing Wavefront Sensing
30
26 Vision Diagnosis Using Wavefront Optometers
31
27 Aberrations of the Human Eye
32
28 Determination of Best SpheroCylindrical Correction by Wavefront Optometers
33
29 PointSpread Function PSF of the Eye
34
211 WavefrontGuided Vision Correction
35
212 Customized Vision Correction through Adaptive Optics
36
213 Wavefront Technology for Laser Vision Correction
38
214 Wavefront Technology for the Calibration of Excimer Refractive Lasers
39
215 HighResolution Retinal Imaging with Adaptive Optics
40
216 Photoreceptor Images
41
217 Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopes cSLO
43
3 An Aberration Generator for the Calibration of WavefrontSensing Optometers
49
32 Dynamic Source of Seidel Aberrations
50
33 Phase Plates as Sources of Aberrations
51
34 Experimental Setup with the Wavefront Sensor
52
35 Experiment Results
54
36 Conclusions
57
Wavefront Maps of 8 Phase Plates
58
The Quest for Perfect Vision
61
42 The Quality of the Human Eye
62
43 Linear Systems
64
431 Optical Systems
65
44 Representation of Aberrations
68
45 Simulations
72
References
82
5 First Clinical Results with WaveScan
83
53 Application of the WaveScan in Refractive Surgery
88
55 Final Review
90
Clinical Primer
93
62 Current Ocular Refraction Evaluation Systems
95
622 Corneal Topography
96
63 How the VISX 2010 Wavefront System Works
98
64 How to Read a Wavefront Map
100
65 What are the Shortcomings of ShackHartmann Wavefront Analysis?
102
66 Reproducibility and Effect of Pupil Size
105
67 Clinical Examples
106
672 Case 2 Status Post Radial Keratotomy
108
674 Case 4 Status Post Penetrating Keratoplasty for Keratoconus
110
675 Case 5 Unoperated Normal Eyes
111
676 Case 6 Irregular LASIK Ablation
115
678 Case 8 Normal Examination No Refractive Error
116
679 Case 9 Status Post Myopic LASIK
119
6710 Case 10 Normal Examination Minimal Refractive Error
121
References
123
7 Active Eye Tracking for Excimer Laser Refractive Surgery
125
73 Effects of Head Movements on Fixation
127
76 Tracker Speed Requirements
128
Analog vs Video
130
78 Video Techniques
133
710 VISX Eye Tracking System
134
711 Robustness and Safety Features
135
712 Ablation Accuracy of the VISX ActiveTrak System
137
713 Conclusion
138
References
139
8 Cyclotorsional Eye Tracking
141
82 Tracking Algorithm
142
83 Affine Parameter Estimation
146
84 Torsional Tracking Results
147
85 Combined Torsional Alignment and Tracking Results
151
86 Algorithm Verification
153
87 Clinical Results
154
88 RealTime Implementation
156
References
157
9 Full Registration of the Laser Ablation to the Wavefront Measurement
159
105 How the VSS Algorithm Solves the Ablation Problem
177
107 Physical Validation of VSS
179
108 Conclusion
180
References
183
Generation of WavefrontCorrecting PreVue Lenses Using Variable Spot Scanning
186
Theory and Practice of Variable Spot Scanning Using a Variable Repetition Rate to Reduce VSS Treatment Time
189
First Clinical Results
193
113 Methods
194
1132 Single Pass Wavefront Measurement
196
1134 Techniques
198
1135 Presentation of WaveScan Results
200
1137 What Is the RMSOAI?
201
1138 Treatment Tables
203
114 The Study
204
1142 Study Group
205
1143 Subject Eligibility
206
115 Results
207
1154 Higher Order Aberrations
208
116 Conclusion
210
References
211
Indications Surgical Techniques Complications and Results
213
123 Preoperative Management
214
124 Surgical Technique
215
1261 Mechanical
216
1264 Laser
217
127 Nomogram and Laser Algorithm
218
128 Postoperative Management
219
129 Complications
220
12102 Overcorrection
221
12104 Treatment of Haze and Regression
222
12105 Decentration
223
1211 Results
224
1212 Summary
227
Myopia Hyperopia and Eyes with Reduced Acuity
229
133 Patient Satisfaction with Night Vision
231
134 Summary
233
136 Study Description
234
137 Case Study
235
138 Reduced Acuity Patients
236
1310 Conclusion
237
14 Refractive Surgical Applications of Femtosecond Lasers
239
142 Laser Tissue Interaction
241
143 AllSolidState Femtosecond Laser Technology
242
144 Instrumentation
246
1442 Ophthalmic Femtosecond Laser Procedures
247
145 Experimental Results
250
146 First Clinical Experience with the FEMTEC Laser
253
147 Conclusion and Outlook
255
15 Femtosecond Laser Technology in Keratoplasty
257
Fully Integrated Curative Corneal Procedures
259
154 Why Quest for Novel Techniques?
260
155 Challenges A Virtual Blade as an Ideal Tool?
261
References
262
Case Report
263
References for Excursus
265
A Refractive Society Symposium
271
A2 Patient Selection for LVC Using Wavefront Technology
274
A3 Multicenter Wavefront Ablations
276
A4 Sixmonth US Refractive Wavefront Ablation Results
278
A5 Preliminary Therapeutic Wavefront Ablation Results
280
A6 Presbyobic LASIK Techniques
282
A7 Diagnostic Wavefront Compensation with Adaptive Optics
284
B Refractive Outcomes with OneStep Wavefront Guided LASIK
287
B23 WavePrint Treatment Methods
288
B33 Change in BSCVA
289
B35 Stability
290
B37 Complications and Adverse Events
291
B4 Conclusion
292
Index
293
About the Editors
297
Copyright

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