Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe
Edward Elgar, Jan 1, 2007 - Business & Economics - 228 pages
This book advances our understanding of university spin-off creation and development in environments outside the high-tech clusters of the US. While there has been substantial university spin-off activity internationally in recent years, a number of major aspects are little understood. The authors argue that the nature of universities is changing as reduced public funding reflects a public debate on their role in society. An important aspect of this international phenomenon is an increased emphasis on the commercialization of university research and on academic entrepreneurship.These new ventures therefore involve the spinning-off of technology and knowledge generated by universities. The authors adopt a multi-level approach in their examination of university spin-offs. European case studies are specifically selected to reflect the diversity of the institutional environment. In particular, units of analysis involving universities, technology transfer offices, spin-off firms, finance providers and individual entrepreneurs and teams are extensively analysed in quantitative and qualitative studies. To conclude, policy implications for the future successful development of spin-offs are identified.
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Public policies to foster academic spinoffs
Types of spinoffs
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academic entrepreneurs attract Belgium BioM biotechnology businece business angels business model business plan cent Chapter cognitive commercial contract research Crealys created creation critical juncture early stage entrepreneurial teams entrepreneurship environment equity Europe European Commission exit experience external finance focused founding team France Germany growth high-tech identified IMEC important Incubator model industry initiatives investors involved Leuven licensing Low Selective model million euros opportunity orientated partners patent phase potential pre-seed programmes projects public research organizations public sector RBSOs rearket region research institutes role scientific seed capital funds social capital spin spin-off activity spin-off companies spin-off process start-up strategy Supportive model surrogate entrepreneurs Sweden team members technology transfer offices teshnelegy third stream TTOs Twente types of spin-offs universities and public University Challenge University of Twente USOs VC firms VC-backed venture capital venture capital firms venture capitalists