Academic Literacy and the Nature of Expertise: Reading, Writing, and Knowing in Academic Philosophy

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Psychology Press, 1994 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 354 pages
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The first full-length account integrating both the cognitive and sociological aspects of reading and writing in the academy, this unique volume covers educational research on reading and writing, rhetorical research on writing in the disciplines, cognitive research on expertise in ill-defined problems, and sociological and historical research on the professions.

The author produced this volume as a result of a research program aimed at understanding the relationship between two concepts -- literacy and expertise -- which traditionally have been treated as quite separate phenomena. A burgeoning literature on reading and writing in the academy has begun to indicate fairly consistent patterns in how students acquire literacy practices. This literature shows, furthermore, that what students do is quite distinct from what experts do. While many have used these results as a starting point for teaching students "how to be expert," the author has chosen instead to ask about the interrelationship between expert and novice practice, seeing them both as two sides of the same project: a cultural-historical "professionalization project" aimed at establishing and preserving the professional privilege.

The consequences of this "professionalization project" are examined using the discipline of academic philosophy as the "site" for the author's investigations. Methodologically unique, these investigations combine rhetorical analysis, protocol analysis, and the analysis of classroom discourse. The result is a complex portrait of how the participants in this humanistic discipline use their academic literacy practices to construct and reconstruct a great divide between expert and lay knowledge. This monograph thus extends our current understanding of the rhetoric of the professions and examines its implications for education.
 

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Contents

Discourse and Knowledge in the Sciences
10
Reading in the Sciences
20
Writing in the Schools
37
Literacy and Learning at Crossed Purposes in the Schools
50
Expertise as Professionalized Knowledge
67
Literacy and the Nature of Expertise
81
STUDYING SPACE AND TIME
97
Modeling Writing as Activity
112
Jeffs Use of Narrative 790
191
Leslies Use of Narrative 799
199
Cultural Slippage and the Professionalization of Self
207
The Classroom Situation
214
The Tacit Integration of Academic Expertise
228
Reflecting on Academic Literacy
235
Reforming Academic Literacy
250
Interview Guide for the Teacher
263

STUDIES AT A SINGLE SITE
125
Comparison with Historical Forms 756
156
The Social and Historical Character
166
The Knowledge Representations 772
172
Conversation and Socially Configured Representations 779
179
Appendix H Rules for the Analysis of Text Structure
295
Appendix J Rules for Aggregating Conversational Interchanges
314
References
327
Author Index
343
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