Accommodation and Vergence Mechanisms in the Visual System

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Ove Franzen, Hansn Richter, Lawrence Stark
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 1, 2000 - Psychology - 346 pages
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This conference was instigated by a combination of factors: The nature of the problem, the wide spread occupational epidemiology reported on eye symptoms and eye fatigue in the workplace, and the organizers' awareness of the complexity of the scientific and clinical bases of knowledge that might be usefully applied. The introduction of new methods into system neurobiology provides new insights into how we receive and process information from the external world, and act upon it. New, non-invasive methods have opened the way to direct observation of the human brain in action. Due particularly to the interaction between the visual and oculomotor requirements involved, several clinical and scientific fields intersect when these issues are considered. To provide clear vision the accommodative and pupillary mechanisms are used. To maintain binocularity, the ver gence oculomotor system, sensitive to fatigue, must attain congruence with accommodative levels. This accommodation-vergence linkage was a focus of our symposium.
 

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Contents

Neuronal circuits for accommodation and vergence in the primate
xxi
Neural codes for threedimensional space
9
Neuronal connectivity between accommodative and active fixation systems
21
Comparative considerations
31
cortical processing and neuronal pathway
43
Research on dynamic accommodation using TDO III Three Dimensional Optometer III and MEG Magnetoencephalography
51
Voluntary modulation of accommodation in the human visual system
67
Fixation to point targets at different viewing distances
79
Accommodation age and presbyopia
193
Chromatic stimulus for accommodation to stationary and moving targets
201
Error signal detection and dynamics of accommodation
213
Mode switching in control of accommodation
225
A Modified Control Model for SteadyState Accommodation
235
Binocular Accommodation
245
Vertical vergence normal function and plasticity
257
A behavioral analysis of normal variations of accommodation
273

Spatial contrast sensitivity and visual accommodation studied with YEP Visual Evoked Potential PET Positron Emission Tomography and psychophy...
91
Accommodation and the throughfocus changes of the retinal image
115
a mechanism for steadystate control of accommodation
129
Pharmacology of accommodative adaptation
141
Behavioral links between the oculomotor and cardiovascular systems
151
Development of accommodation and vergence in infancy
161
The accommodative response to blur in myopic children
171
The role of muscarinic antagonists in the control of eye growth and myopia
183
The influence of oculomotor function on the optical correction for night myopia
285
Effects of neck muscles proprioception on eye position and vergence movements
293
Accommodationvergencefixation disparity and synergism of head neck and shoulders
303
Changes in accommodation and vergence following 2 hours of movie viewing through biocular headmounted display
313
Development of myopia due to environmental problems A possible interaction of anticholinesterase compounds examined by accommodative adapta...
327
A possible contribution of neuroscience
341
Subject Index
345
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