Accounting for Poverty in Infrastructure Reform: Learning from Latin America's Experience

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World Bank Publications, 2002 - Political Science - 122 pages
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"During the 1990's a number of countries in Latin America including Argentina, Bolivia and Chile, developed policies focused on utility sector liberalization through increased private sector participation. This focus resulted from the recognition that overall quality and availability of services were inadequate. Infrastructure reform is inexorably linked to poverty alleviation and therefore must be carefully constructed and enacted.

This book provides practical guidelines and options for infrastructure reform that result in access and affordability for the poor. Accounting for Poverty in Infrastructure Reform: Learning from Latin America's Experience includes analysis of the trade-offs that must be made between efficiency, equity, and fiscal costs of the options. It includes a new model for reform that consists of three main components - policies, regulation, and provision which when properly balanced minimize the risks associated with reform."

 

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Page 26 - Percentage of population with access to safe water is the share of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of safe water (including treated surface water and untreated but uncontaminated water, such as from springs, sanitary wells, and protected boreholes).
Page 26 - In rural areas it implies that members of the household do not have to spend a disproportionate part of the day fetching water.
Page 26 - Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with access to at least adequate excreta disposal facilities (private or shared but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained.
Page 26 - Access to sanitation is the percentage of the population with at least adequate disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Suitable facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with sewerage. To be...
Page 43 - Barms t2002I. telecommunications was 72 percent in the period 1995-97. Customers must pay regulated service charges to cover the unsubsidized costs. Concessionaires are free to choose the appropriate technology. Although the government makes certain assumptions about technology choice when computing the maximum allowable subsidy, the winning bidder is free to select its own technological solution. The results of the programs have been encouraging. About 80 percent of the rural population now has...
Page 42 - Lyonnaise des Eaux consortium (Aguas del Illimani) for private provision of water and sanitation services in the cities of La Paz and El Alto. A major objective of the concession was to increase coverage of these services rapidly, particularly in El Alto, a city adjacent to La Paz that was established in recent decades as a result of migration from mining centers and agricultural areas.
Page 61 - An alternative is a subsidy whose amount depends negatively on total consumption, under the assumption that the poor tend to consume less than the rich. In Honduras the unit charge is reduced for customers with total consumption below 300 kilowatt hours a month.
Page 43 - ... community. Concessions are awarded to the company offering the largest reduction of the maximum allowable subsidy stipulated for each contract. Service expansion is jointly financed by the state, the private sector, and the rural consumer. State contributions are justified because the selected projects have positive social returns but negative private returns. Indeed, this differential defines the maximum allowable subsidy. However, a substantial part of the investment costs are financed by the...
Page 107 - This has been standard for public utilities in Latin America, and is likely to continue to be common for private utilities when governments cannot make credible commitments to finance subsidies.
Page 13 - Colombia, subsidies for the consumption of utility services such as water, sewerage, electricity, and gas are substantially less progressive than public expenditures on health, education, and rural programs.

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