Accounting for Resources, 2: The Life Cycle of Materials

Front Cover
Edward Elgar Publishing, 1998 - Nature - 380 pages
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The book also includes a longitudinal study of heavy metals use and dissipation, during the period 1880-1980 with reference to the Huson-Raritan basin. It concludes with an overview, including some recommendations for future research and for policy change
 

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Contents

Mass balance and the lifecycle perspective
1
12 Lifecycle perspective
6
13 Inconsistent unverifiable data
10
14 Summary of conclusions
20
The problem of measurement
23
lifecycle analysis LCA conventions
25
22 Embodied exergy as a normalizing factor for mass flows in LCA
33
23 Reference states for chemical exergy calculations
35
72 Nonferrous metal uses and consumption
214
73 Nonferrous metal emissions and recycling
221
An historical reconstruction of anthropogenic pollutant emissions in the HudsonRaritan basin 18801980
225
81 Heavy metals released by mining operations
229
83 Heavy metals released by coal combustion
234
84 Emission controls
235
85 Metal emissions by dissipation of intermediate or final products
237
86 Total anthropogenic emissions in the HudsonRaritan basin
241

24 Standard computational procedure Szargut
38
25 Exergy as a measure of resources and as a factor of production
42
26 Exergy embodied in wastes as a measure of potential environmental harm
48
The life cycle of chlorine I
62
31 Why worry about chlorine?
63
32 Production and consumption of chlorine
66
33 Major chemical uses of chlorine
70
34 Data sources and data problems
77
35 Mass balances for chlorine chemicals
78
36 Losses of chlorine within the chemical sector
95
37 Pollutant emissions
97
The life cycle of chlorine II
100
42 Chlorinated solvents
105
43 Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs
111
44 Polyvinyl chloride PVC
117
45 Persistent cyclic organochlorines
125
46 Conclusions
143
Accounting for mercury 50 Background
147
51 Toxicity
153
52 Natural sources of mercury
154
53 The industrial supply of mercury
157
54 Mercury consumption and emissions
160
56 Recycling
177
57 Emissions and environmental fluxes of mercury
178
58 Concluding comments
179
Accounting for arsenic and cadmium
183
61 Sources
186
62 Consumption and uses
187
63 Flows and emissions
190
Accounting for copper lead and zinc
200
71 Nonferrous metal mining concentration and smelting
205
Environmental statistics and measures of sustainability
250
91 Indicators of unsustainability
252
92 Economic definitions and implications of sustainability
254
93 Criteria for strong sustainability
256
94 Economic implications of strong sustainability
258
95 Measures of climatic sustainability criterion 1
261
96 Measures of acidification and toxification criteria 2 and 3
266
97 Measures of unsustainable agriculture criteria 4 and 5
277
the nutrient cycles
278
99 Lifecycle analysis and environmental statistics
280
910 Conclusions
282
Computerassisted simulation
286
A3 A stepbystep approach to using Aspen Plus
294
A4 Balancing a unit process using Aspen Plus
296
A5 Applications
301
Standard chemical exergies of selected chemical compounds
310
Composition of exemplary materials
329
C2 Aluminum mixtures
331
C3 Copper mixtures
332
C4 Lead mixtures
334
C5 Zinc mixtures
336
C6 Other related material mixtures
338
Exemplary massbalanced metal production processes
340
D2 Aluminum processes
343
D3 Copper processes
347
D4 Lead processes
350
D5 Zinc processes
353
materials and exergy requirements of exemplary processes
356
References
358
Index
373
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