Achievement Effects of Five Comprehensive School Reform Designs Implemented in Los Angeles Unified School District
The author estimated achievement effects as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test 9 for students in grades 1-11 who participated in America's Choice, Co-nect, Different Ways of Knowing, Success for All (SFA), and Urban Learning Centers comprehensive school reform (CSR) designs implemented in the Los Angeles Unified School District between 1999 and 2002. This study yielded effects estimates that were generally less than prior research has suggested. The author found no consistent evidence across the five CSR designs that earlier intervention caused larger gains. However, students who began SFA in grades 1 or 2 benefited in reading, mathematics, and language arts. Results suggested that comparison group selection methods accounted for smaller effect sizes rather than being an artifact of where the reforms were implemented. Conditional on a statistically significant average achievement effect, there was strong evidence that longer participation caused larger effects. Policymakers thinking of implementing a CSR design must consider that prior-effects research might have overestimated achievement effects due to less internally valid research methods.
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AC design achievement effects estimates aggregated data America's Choice analyses assessment Bodilly Borman Co-nect cohort comparison group comparison schools comparison students criterion-referenced tests CSR and comparison CSR Comparison CSR implementation CSR participation CSR schools CSR students CSRD curriculum differences early intervention effect size effect sizes effects of CSR elementary schools evaluation fects five CSR designs fixed effects free or reduced-price given CSR grade level Group 3 Group group selection high school II/USP impact implement CSR individual-level internally valid Johannesen Language Arts Achievers large number LAUSD leadership lesson study low achievers Low Reading Achievers matching ment methods middle school NCE points NCEE positive effects prior reduced-price meal relationship sample SAT9 school implementations school improvement school that implemented school-level Slavin standard errors statistically significant strategies student achievement students in Group students that participated Table teachers test scores third-party Urban Learning Centers variables