Acid rain: its causes and its effects on inland waters
The causes and consequences of acid rain are subjects of widespread concern and controversy. However the effects of acid deposition on the chemistry of lakes and streams, and on the survival of fish and other aquatic life, have been greatly clarified by the results of a recent Anglo-Scandinavian surface waters research program. This book presents a concise, nonspecialist account of the results and their implications by the director of the program. Based on studies conducted throughout the United Kingdom and northern Europe, the book includes chapters on emissions, transport, and deposition of acid pollution; hydrochemical studies in catchments; catchment process studies; catchment manipulation experiments; the role of hydrology and soil chemistry; palaeolimnological studies; the toxic effects of acidification on fish and other aquatic life; and catchment modelling studies. The highly interdisciplinary nature of the research should appeal to a wide range of scientists and to policy-makers interested in acid rain and its consequences. It is also aimed at postgraduates and third-year undergraduate students in the environmental sciences.
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The emission transport and chemical transformation
Acid deposition in the UK and Europe
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a'Mharcaidh acid deposition adsorbed afforestation alkalinity aluminium analysis anions areas atmosphere B.J. Mason base cations base saturation Battarbee Birkenes brown trout calcium Cambridge University Press canopy carbon catchment cation exchange cation exchange capacity CEGB cent changes chemical Chon decrease diatom dry deposition effects emissions of SO2 enhanced fish populations fishery status forest g N m-2 gibbsite H+ ions H0ylandet increased inorganic aluminium inputs Kelty lake acidification layer leachate Loch Fleet long-term low pH measurements Mg2+ mineral neutralized nitrate nitrogen non-marine sulphate organic acids oxidized particles percolate podzols pollutants precipitation rain rainfall reactions reduced Renberg run-off Scotland sediments simulate snow sodium soil acidification soil horizons soil profile soil water stream chemistry stream flow stream water sulphate sulphate concentrations sulphur deposition surface waters acidification SWAP Sweden throughfall tion toxic u.eq uptake vegetation water chemistry waters acidification programme weathering rates wet deposition