Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 10, 2012 - Science - 526 pages
This monograph provides an international perspective on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, including the problem of geogenic acidification. Much has been learned during the last decade through research and practical experience on how to mitigate or remediate the environmental problems of acidic pit lakes. In the first part of the book, general scientific issues are presented in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental science, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and on the peculiar biological features that occur in the extreme habitats of acidic pit lakes. Another chapter provides an overview of methods currently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and treat outflowing acidic water. The second part of the book is a collection of regional surveys of pit lake problems from three European countries and Australia, and case studies of various individual representative lakes. A final case study provides an innovative approach to assessing the economic value of new pit lakes and balancing the costs and benefits, a valuable tool for decision makers.
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acid mine drainage acidic lakes acidic mining lakes acidic pit lakes acidic water acidified acidophilic algae alkaline anoxic Australia bacteria benthic Berkeley Pit biological biomass Boehrer calcite cells chemical Cladocera coal contaminated Cueva decrease density deposits depth dissolved district environmental epilimnion eutrophication Fe(III ferric iron geochemical German pit lakes Germany goethite gradients groundwater holomictic hypolimnion increase inflow inorganic jarosite Koschorreck layer lignite lignite mining Lusatian macrophyte meromictic metal metal-mine pit lakes mg/L microbial minerals mixolimnion mixotrophic monimolimnion natural lakes neutral Niemegk Nixdorf nutrient oligotrophic organic carbon oxygen periphyton phosphorus phytoplankton pit lake water PitMod pore water potential precipitation primary production processes pyrite pyrite oxidation rates redox reservoirs result river salinity samples Sánchez-España Scenario schwertmannite Sect sediment species stratification sulfate sulfate concentrations sulfate reduction sulfide sulfur surface water Table temperature treatment vertical water column water quality zone zooplankton