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Circuit theory of speech production
Acoustic description and classification of phonetic units
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acoustic analyzing apparent approximately average back vowels band-pass filter bandwidth c/s dB c/s cavity characteristics compared complex frequency connected speech consonant constant constriction corresponding damped dB c/s dB diagram difference duration effect F-pattern Fant female formant data formant frequencies formant levels Fourier frequency analysis fricative front vowels Fx and F2 glottis harmonic high frequency higher formants impedance impulse response initial amplitude intensity curve intensity level interval L M Ericsson Laplace transform Laurent low frequency low-pass filter male voice mel scale oscillograph output peak factor pertaining phase phonetic pitch providing publication Fant radiation reference resonance analog resonance frequency resonant circuit root mean square sample second formant Section shift shunt Sonagraph sound pressure speaker specific spectral energy spectrographic spectrum envelope speech sounds speech wave Stop Consonants sustained Swedish vowels third formant transient unvoiced utilized versus vocal tract voice fundamental frequency voice level voiced sounds zero