## AcousticsWritten by a noted authority in the subject area, Ingard's Acoustics is a comprehensive study of the theory and practical application of acoustics to numerous fields. It may be used as a reference by scientists and engineers or as a senior-undergraduate or graduate-level course. Several of the chapters include notes and numerical results from the author’s involvement in specific projects, and contain hitherto unpublished material. Items in this category are aero-acoustic instabilities, flow interaction with acoustic resonators, sound propagation in the atmosphere, sound generation by fans, aspects of nonlinear acoustics, the analysis of an oscillator with “dry friction,” and a discussion of the frequency response of the ear. |

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### Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction | 1 |

Chapter 2 Oscillations | 13 |

Chapter 3 Sound Waves | 63 |

Chapter 4 Sound Reflection Absorption and Transmission | 105 |

Chapter 5 The Wave Equation | 149 |

Chapter 6 Room and Duct Acoustics | 175 |

Chapter 7 Flowinduced Sound and Instabilities | 201 |

Chapter 8 Sound Generation by Fans | 245 |

Chapter 9 Atmospheric Acoustics | 271 |

Chapter 10 Meanflow Effects and Nonlinear Acoustics | 315 |

Chapter 11 Examples | 349 |

Supplementary Notes | 389 |

Complex Amplitudes | 417 |

References | 425 |

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### Common terms and phrases

absorption coefﬁcient acoustic mode acoustic power acoustic resonator angular angular frequency approximately attenuation average axial blades boundary layer complex amplitude complex number component compressibility corresponding cos(cot damping deﬁned determined dipole direction displacement distance duct energy example expressed ﬁrst ﬂow ﬂuctuations ﬂuid force distribution Fourier free ﬁeld friction function group velocity harmonic motion heat heat conduction increases integral intensity linear longitudinal wave Mach number mass maximum mean momentum negative nonlinear normal obtained ofthe period phase angle piston plane wave point source pressure ﬁeld problem proportional pulse radiation radius ratio reactance reference reﬂected resistance resonance frequency result solution sound ﬁeld sound pressure level sound propagation sound speed sound wave spectrum density sphere spring constant surface temperature thermal transmission loss tube turbulence unit area unit length valve velocity amplitude vibrational viscous vortex wall wave impedance wave speed wavelength x-direction zero