Acoustics for Engineers: Troy Lectures

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Springer Science & Business Media, Apr 17, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 233 pages
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This book provides the material for an introductory course in engineering acoustics for students with basic knowledge in mathematics. It is based on extensive teaching experience at the university level. Under the guidance of an academic teacher it is su?cient as the sole te- book for the subject. Each chapter deals with a well de?ned topic and r- resents the material for a two-hour lecture. The chapters alternate between more theoretical and more application-oriented concepts. For the purpose of self-study, the reader is advised to use this text in parallel with further introductory material. Some suggestions to this end are given in Appendix 15. 3. The authors thank Dorea Ruggles for providing substantial stylistic re?- ments. Further thanks go to various colleagues and graduate students who most willingly helped with corrections and proof reading. Nevertheless, the authors assume full responsibility for all contents. Bochum and Troy, Jens Blauert February 2008 Ning Xiang Contents 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 1 De?nition of Three Basic Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 2 Specialized Areas within Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. 3 About the History of Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. 4 Relevant Quantities in Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. 5 Some Numerical Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. 6 Levels and Logarithmic Frequency Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. 7 Double-Logarithmic Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2 Mechanic and Acoustic Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. 1 Basic Elements of Linear, Oscillating, Mechanic Systems . . . . . 14 2. 2 Parallel Mechanic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2. 3 Free Oscillations of Parallel Mechanic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2. 4 Forced Oscillation of Parallel Mechanic Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . .
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 Specialized Areas within Acoustics
3
13 About the History of Acoustics
4
14 Relevant Quantities in Acoustics
5
15 Some Numerical Examples
6
16 Levels and Logarithmic Frequency Intervals
8
17 DoubleLogarithmic Plots
10
Mechanic and Acoustic Oscillations
12
81 Websters Dfferential Equation the Horn Equation
104
82 Conical Horns
105
83 Exponential Horns
108
84 Radiation Impedances and Sound Radiation
110
85 Steps in the Area Function
111
86 Stepped Ducts
113
Spherical Sound Sources and Line Arrays
116
91 Spherical Sound Sources of 0th Order
118

21 Basic Elements of Linear Oscillating Mechanic Systems
14
22 Parallel Mechanic Oscillators
16
23 Free Oscillations of Parallel Mechanic Oscillators
17
24 Forced Oscillation of Parallel Mechanic Oscillators
19
25 Energies and Dissipation Losses
22
26 Basic Elements of Linear Oscillating Acoustic Systems
24
27 The Helmholtz Resonator
25
Electromechanic and Electroacoustic Analogies
27
31 The Electromechanic Analogies
28
32 The Electroacoustic Analogy
29
34 Rules for Deriving Analogous Electric Circuits
31
35 Synopsis of Electric Analogies of Simple Oscillators
33
37 Examples of Mechanic and Acoustic Oscillators
34
Electromechanic and Electroacoustic Transduction
36
41 Electromechanic Couplers as Two or ThreePort Elements
38
42 The Carbon Microphone A Controlled Coupler
39
43 Fundamental Equations of Electroacoustic Transducers
40
44 Reversibility
43
45 Coupling of Electroacoustic Transducers to the Sound Field
44
46 Pressure and PressureGradient Receivers
46
47 Further Directional Characteristics
49
48 Absolute Calibration of Transducers
52
MagneticField Transducers
55
51 The Magnetodynamic Transduction Principle
57
52 Magnetodynamic Sound Emitters and Receivers
59
53 The Electromagnetic Transduction Principle
65
54 Electromagnetic Sound Emitters and Receivers
67
55 The Magnetostrictive Transduction Principle
68
56 Magnetostrictive Sound Transmitters and Receivers
69
ElectricField Transducers
70
62 Piezoelectric Sound Emitters and Receivers
74
63 The Electrostrictive Transduction Principle
78
64 Electrostrictive Sound Emitters and Receivers
79
65 The Dielectric Transduction Principle
80
66 Dielectric Sound Emitters and Receivers
81
67 Further Transducer and Coupler Principles
85
The Wave Equation in Fluids
87
71 Derivation of the OneDimensional Wave Equation
89
72 ThreeDimensional Wave Equation in Cartesian Coordinates
93
73 Solutions of the Wave Equation
95
74 Field Impedance and Power Transport in Plane Waves
96
75 TransmissionLine Equations and Reflectance
97
76 The Acoustic Measuring Tube
99
Horns and Stepped Ducts
103
92 Spherical Sound Sources of 1st Order
122
93 HigherOrder Spherical Sound Sources
124
94 Line Arrays of Monopoles
125
95 Analogy to Fourier Transforms as Used in Signal Theory
127
96 Directional Equivalence of Sound Emitters and Receivers
130
Piston Membranes Diffraction and Scattering
133
101 The Rayleigh Integral
134
102 Fraunhofers Approximation
135
103 The Far Field of Piston Membranes
136
104 The Near Field of Piston Membranes
138
105 General Remarks on Diffraction and Scattering
142
Dissipation Reflection Refraction and Absorption
145
111 Dissipation During Sound Propagation in Air
147
112 Sound Propagation in Porous Media
148
113 Reflection and Refraction
151
114 Wall Impedance and Degree of Absorption
152
115 Porous Absorbers
155
116 Resonance Absorbers
158
Geometric Acoustics and Diffuse Sound Fields
161
121 Mirror Sound Sources and Ray Tracing
162
122 Flutter Echoes
165
123 Impulse Responses of Rectangular Rooms
167
124 Diffuse Sound Fields
169
125 ReverberationTime Formulae
172
126 Application of Diffuse Sound Fields
173
Isolation of Air and StructureBorne Sound
177
132 Radiation of Airborne Sound by Bending Waves
179
133 SoundTransmission Loss of SingleLeaf Walls
181
134 SoundTransmission Loss of DoubleLeaf Walls
184
135 The Weighted SoundReduction Index
186
136 Isolation of Vibrations
189
137 Isolation of Floors with Regard to Impact Sounds
192
Noise Control A Survey
194
141 Origins of Noise
196
143 Noise Reduction as a System Problem
200
144 Noise Reduction at the Source
203
145 Noise Reduction Along the Propagation Paths
204
146 Noise Reduction at the Receivers End
208
Appendices
211
152 Complex Notation for Power and Intensity
212
153 Supplementary Textbooks for Self Study
214
154 Letter Symbols Notations and Units
215
Index
219
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