Acoustics of American English Speech: A Dynamic Approach

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Springer Science & Business Media, May 21, 1993 - Science - 396 pages
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This book presents the most contemporary and comprehensive description of the acoustics of the sounds used in American English. Intended to serve as an introductory text for students and professionals interested in acoustic phonetics, linguistics, physics, electrical engineering, and computer science, the authors bring to the subject the points of view of both linguistics and physics. The book uses numerous examples of acoustic spectrograms to show the continuities and variability of natural speech. The book begins by introducing the basic concepts of phonetics, phonology, and linguistics to readers whose background is in physics or engineering and introducing the physics of sound generation and analysis for speech scientists and linguists. The authors then use the tools developed in the first part to examine the characteristics of individual phonemes as well as the changes introduced when individual sounds are combined in speech. Modern applications of speech acoustics, especially speech synthesis and recognition, are also discussed.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
American English Phonemes
17
21 The Phonemes of American English
19
22 Consonants
22
221 Voicing
23
222 Place of Articulation
24
223 Manner of Articulation
25
224 Consonant Classification
27
623 Alveolars
172
624 PalatoAlveolars
179
625 Summary
183
Consonantal Sonorants and Vowels
187
711 NasaltoVowel Transitions
188
712 VoweltoNasal Transitions
193
713 The Extent of Nasality
199
714 Summary
203

23 Vowels
28
231 Vowels Described by Binary Features
30
232 Vowels Classified by Tongue Position
32
233 Diphthongs
33
24 Phonological Processes
34
242 Assimilation Deletion Addition Substitution and Reduction
35
25 Summary
37
Speech and Sound
39
31 The Properties of Sound
40
312 Sinusoidal Vibrations
45
313 Damped Sinusoids
46
314 Complex Signals
48
315 Normal Modes of Vibration
54
316 The Spectrum
56
317 Noisy Sounds
59
318 Resonance
60
32 The Acoustics of Speech Sounds
65
322 The Vocal Apparatus as a Woodwind Instrument
66
324 The Tract The Resonator
68
325 Looking at Speech
72
33 Summary
76
Static Properties of Speech Sounds
79
41 Consonants
81
412 Fricatives
92
413 Nasals
96
414 Liquids and Glides
98
42 Vowels
100
421 The Front Vowels
101
422 The Back Vowels
102
423 The Central Vowels
103
424 The Vowel Space
104
43 Summary
106
Vowel Transitions
109
511 Diphthongs
110
512 VoweltoGlide Transitions
113
513 GlidetoVowel Transitions
116
52 VoweltoVowel Transitions
119
521 Continuous Transitions
120
Glottal Stops
125
Obstruent and Vowel Transitions
133
612 VoweltoVoiced Stop Transitions
140
613 Voiceless Stopsto Vowel Transitions
145
614 VowelstoVoiceless Stop Transitions
149
615 Summary
153
62 Fricatives and Vowels
154
621 Labiodentals
155
622 Dentals
166
72 Vowels and the Lateral Liquid
204
721 Light ItoVowel Transitions
205
722 VoweltoDark Transition
207
723 VoweltoLight Transitions
209
724 Dark ItoVowel Transition
211
725 Intervocalic Light and Dark
212
726 Summary
215
73 Vowels and the Retroflex Liquid
216
731 Dark rtoVowel Transitions
217
732 Vowel to Dark r Transitions
219
733 Light r
220
734 Summary
224
Consonant Interactions
227
81 ObstruentObstruent Interactions
228
812 Affricates and StopFricative Interactions
241
813 FricativeStop Interactions
255
814 FricativeFricative Interactions
266
82 ObstruentSonorant Interactions
272
821 FricativeNasal Interactions
273
822 StopNasal Interactions
277
823 StopLiquid and StopGlide Interactions
278
824 FricativeLiquid and FricativeGlide Interactions
288
83 SonorantObstruent Interactions
294
831 NasalObstruent Interactions
295
832 LiquidObstruent Interactions
306
84 SonorantSonorant Interactions
308
Acoustic Variability
313
91 Two Variable Sounds
314
912 Reduced Vowels
321
92 Consonantal Variability
327
921 The Variability of Oral Stops
328
922 The Variability of Fricatives
334
923 Variability in the Liquids Nasals and Glides
337
924 Syllabic Consonants
338
93 Vowel and Diphthong Variation
341
931 The Long Vowels
342
932 The Short Vowels
347
933 The Diphthongs
351
94 Additional Factors of Acoustic Variability
357
942 Rate Variation
359
95 Dialectal Variations
361
951 American English Dialect Regions
362
96 Conclusion
368
Selected References
371
Index
379
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