Acquisition and Analysis of Terrestrial Gravity Data
Cambridge University Press, Jan 17, 2013 - Science - 171 pages
Gravity surveys have a huge range of applications, indicating density variations in the subsurface and identifying man-made structures, local changes of rock type or even deep-seated structures at the crust/mantle boundary. This important one-stop book combines an introductory manual of practical procedures with a full explanation of analysis techniques, enabling students, geophysicists, geologists and engineers to understand the methodology, applications and limitations of a gravity survey. Filled with examples from a wide variety of acquisition problems, the book instructs students in avoiding common mistakes and misconceptions. It explores the increasing near-surface geophysical applications being opened up by improvements in instrumentation and provides more advance-level material as a useful introduction to potential theory. This is a key text for graduate students of geophysics and for professionals using gravity surveys, from civil engineers and archaeologists to oil and mineral prospectors and geophysicists seeking to learn more about the Earth's deep interior.
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Instruments and data reduction
Field acquisition of gravity data
Graphical representation of the anomalous ﬁeld
Manipulation of the gravity ﬁeld
Interpretation of density structure
The inversion of gravity data
Appendix A Common deﬁnitions and equations in potential theory
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approximation autocovariance function average base station basin Bouguer anomaly Bouguer plate coefﬁcients component computed constant constraints contour coordinates covariance covariance function crust crustal deﬁned density anomalies density contrast density structure depth of compensation derivative difference discrete Fourier transform downward continuation Earth elevation ellipsoid equation evaluated expressed extrapolation Figure ﬁinction ﬁlter ﬁnd ﬁnite ﬁrst ﬁt ﬂat surface Fourier transform geoid geophysical gradient gravitational attraction gravity anomaly gravity data gravity ﬁeld gravity measurements gravity values inﬁnity inﬂuence integral interpolation inverse problem inversion isostasy isostatic response ﬁmction isostatic response function least squares linear magnitude maximum maximum likelihood meter mGal minimum length solution model parameters noise observation point observed gravity orthogonal function polygon potential precision radius reduction density regional relation rocks seismic shallow signiﬁcant signiﬁcantly smoothing sphere terrain correction theoretical gravity topography two-dimensional uncertainty upward continuation value of gravity variations vector velocity vertical wavelengths wavenumber zero