A work of general syntax considering the grammatical relations established in speech or writing between the verb predicate and the noun phrases dependent on it. Focuses on the syntactic relations in the simple verbal sentence, and so does not discuss non-verbal sentences or questions of subordination. Describes the instruments of actancy; defines i
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2nd person 3rd person absolutive accusative languages accusative structure actancy structure actancy variations actant index actant NPs action sentences action verbs addressee adpositions affect agent Amerind languages animacy antipassive Australian languages Avar Badaga Bantu languages Basque Burmese Caucasian languages central actant chap Circassian clause clitic co-reference co-referenced coalescence communicative intent conjugation correlation criteria dative definite object denoting diathesis differential object marking distinction Dyirbal English ergative construction ergative languages ergative structure Eskimo express factors French grammatical guages indefinite instance intransitive intransitive verbs kind Lazard less lexeme Lezgi linguists marker Mayan languages meaning morpheme morphological morphosyntactic nominative non-referential notions noun phrases oblique term one-actant construction one-actant sentence Pashto passive patient Persian postposition predication prefix preposition pronouns reflexive relations semantic single actant subject properties suffix syntactic syntax thematic three-actant Tibeto-Burman language tion transitive two-actant construction two-actant sentence unmarked verb agreement verb carries verb form word order