Action in ecosystems: biothermodynamics for sustainability
This book promotes a novel approach, by emphasising the physical concept of action, to complement that of energy. It aims to show that too much attention may have been devoted to energy in biothermodynamics and insufficient attention to action. This relative neglect may now be limiting our capacity to understand how ecosystems function, how they evolved and if they can be sustained, as human demands for food, shelter and transport increase. Ivan Kennedy introduces the concept of 'action', a thermodynamic property related to entropy, resulting from impulses of energy on matter producing force, based on the sole principle of the conservation of momentum. The significance of action was implied by Max Planck and Albert Einstein early in the 20th Century when they defined the quantum of action, h. The action resonance theory (ART) transcends disciplines and may reverse the alienation pointed to by C. P. Snow in 'The Two Cultures'. Originally designed to solve specific biological problems, such as ATP synthesis, its role in muscle function and nitrogenase activity, ART has universal significance for sustaining the earth's ecosystems in the face of global problems such as the greenhouse effect. Using an elementary mathematical treatment only, this book proposes that action resonance is valid from microcosm to macrocosm, providing a valid version of the unified field theory sought by Einstein and others.
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ACTION AND ENTROPY
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action and entropy action exchange forces action field action resonance theory action theory atmosphere ATP synthase biological Brownian carbon dioxide Carnot cycle cells change in action Chapter chemical potential collisions concentration considered constant cooling coupling agents cycle density dissociation dynamic earth ecosystems effect Einstein electron emission emitted enthalpy entropy and action equilibrium evolution free energy frequency gas molecules gases genes genotype genotype x environment gradient gravitational field greater greenhouse greenhouse effect heat capacity hydrogen atom increase involved irreversible Karl Popper kinetic energy least action mass matter mechanism molecular systems momentum motion natural needed nitrogen nitrogen fixation non-equilibrium orbits organisms outcome oxygen particles photosynthesis physical plant potential energy predicted pressure processes proposed protons radial separation radiant energy radiation reactants reaction recognised result rH value role rotational set of molecules space species speed spontaneous sunlight sustain temperature thermodynamics torque trajectories velocity water molecules zero