Active tectonics of the Hellenic subduction zone
This thesis is remarkable for the wide range of the techniques and observations used and for its insights, which cross several disciplines. It begins by solving a famous puzzle of the ancient world, which is what was responsible for the tsunami that destroyed settlements in the eastern Mediterranean in 365 AD. By radiocarbon dating of preserved marine organisms, Shaw demonstrates that the whole of western Crete was lifted out of the sea by up to 10 meters in a massive earthquake at that time, which occured on a previously unknown fault. The author shows that the resulting tsunami would have the characteristics described by ancient writers, and uses modern GPS measurements and coastline geomorphology to show that the strain build-up near Crete requires such a tsunami-earthquake about every 6.000 years - a major insight into Mediterranean tsunami hazard. A detailed seismological study of earthquakes in the Cretan arc over the last 50 years reveals other important features of its behaviour that were previously unknown. Finally, she provides fundamental insights into the limitations of radiocarbon dating marine organisms, relating to how they secrete carbon into their skeletons. The thesis resulted in three major papers in top journals.
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3 Earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean
4 Radiometric Dating of Uplifted Marine Fauna in Crete and Central Greece
7 Earthquake Tables
8 WaveformModelled Solutions
9 Field Sites
10 Kinematic GPS River Profiles from Crete
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365 earthquake 365 shoreline Active Tectonics Aegean Sea aseismic beneath bivalve bryozoans carbon Central Greece Chap Chrisoskalitissa convergence corals and bryozoans Crete deep Crete shallow dd hh deformation Depth Mw Strike Dip Rake References dots Earth Planet Eastern Mediterranean elevation faulting earthquakes focal mechanisms Geophys GPS velocities graben Gulf of Corinth Hatzfeld Hellenic arc Hellenic subduction zone Hellenic Trench hh mm Lat Holocene Ionian Islands Jackson Kefalonia kinematic GPS Laborel Lat Long Depth lithophagid ages lithosphere Long Depth Mw McKenzie Mediterranean Ridge Mw Strike Dip NE-SW normal faults notch Nubia-Aegean observed occurred overriding Aegean paleo-shoreline Paleochora Peloponnese plotted radiocarbon ages radiocarbon dates region samples sea-level curve sediment seismic shells shows slip vectors splay faults Strike Dip Rake strike-slip faults subduction interface subduction zone interface surface Tectonophysics terraces thrust faulting thrust-faulting earthquakes topography tsunami uplift rate uplifted marine waveform western Crete yyyy mm dd