Acute Effects on Health of Smog Episodes: Report on a WHO Meeting, ʾs Hertogenbosch, Netherlands, 30 October-2 November 1990
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1992 - Medical - 74 pages
Reports the findings of a group of experts commissioned to evaluate the acute short-term effects on health caused by exposure to air pollutants during episodes of smog. Winter- and summer-type smog exposures are considered separately. The report responds to both the public demand to be protected and the corresponding need of health authorities to know when concentrations of specific indicator pollutants reach dangerous levels, what will be the effects on health and which preventive measures should be taken. Of central concern was the question of whether protective measures currently used by European countries are effective.
In its most important achievement, the report grades health effects observed at different concentrations of sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and ozone according to degree of severity, and then outlines appropriate protective measures in line with the significance of health effects. For ozone concentrations, the report also defines the percent of the population likely to be affected at different concentrations.
Concerning measures to protect the general public, the report concludes that short-term measures, such as traffic bans and temporary reductions in industrial emissions, are ineffective. Because traffic bans lead to extreme overloading of the public transport system, outdoor exposure to pollutants is likely to increase as people wait for buses or trains, walk to stations and bus stops, or walk or bicycle to work. The report further concludes that long-term measures to reduce baseline levels of pollution represent the most sensible and effective preventive measure.
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Effects on health of wintertype smog
Effects on health of summertype smog
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24-hour average sulfur 3arpH3HeHHH acute effects Air Pollution Control air pollution episode alert systems American review associated with exposure asthmatic average sulfur dioxide B03aeHCTBHH baseline Bevölkerung Bilthoven black smoke CMora 3HMHero concen CTeneHb dioxide and particulate dioxyde dose eastern Europe effects are expected effects on health effets de santé emissions epidemiological studies épisodes de smog episodes of smog estival être gesundheitlichen health effects health of exposure HjiH human health increase indoors jieTHero THna Journal KOHUeHTpaUHH können l'on lung function maximum 24-hour average measures metacholine moderate mortality Netherlands nitrogen oxides outdoors ozone concentrations peak concentrations personnes photochemical smog Pollution Control Association pollution mix population pulmonary function reduced réduction Regional Office respiratory disease review of respiratory risks to health sérieux short-term smog episodes smog hivernal sollten Sommersmog sulfur dioxide concentrations sulfuric acid summer-type smog exposures suspended particulate matter trations United Kingdom valeurs winter winter-type smog Wintersmog World Health Organization ypoBHH