Adaptation to Life at High Salt Concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Aharon Oren, Ana Plemenitaš
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 30, 2005 - Science - 576 pages
Salt is an essential requirement of life. Already from ancient times (e. g. , see the books of the Bible) its importance in human life has been known. For example, salt symbolizes destruction (as in Sodom and Gomorra), but on the other hand it has been an ingredient of every sacrifice during the Holy Temple periods. Microbial life in concentrated salt solutions has fascinated scientists since its discovery. Recently there have been several international meetings and books devoted entirely to halophiles. This book includes the proceedings of the “Halophiles 2004” conference held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in September 2004 (www. u- lj. si/~bfbhaloph/index. html). This meeting was attended by 120 participants from 25 countries. The editors have selected presentations given at the meeting for this volume, and have also invited a number of contributions from experts who had not been present in Ljubljana. This book complements “Halophilic Microorganisms”, edited by A. Ventosa and published by Springer-Verlag (2004), “Halophilic Microorganism and their Environments” by A. Oren (2002), published by Kluwer Academic Publishers as volume 5 of “Cellular Origins, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology” (COLE), and “Microbiology and Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Environments” edited by A. Oren, and published by CRC Press, Boca Raton (1999). Salt-loving (halophilic) microorganisms grow in salt solutions above seawater salinity (~3. 5% salt) up to saturation ranges (i. e. , around 35% salt). High concentrations of salt occur in natural environments (e. g.
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accumulation activity adaptation algae amino acid Appl Archaea archaeon Aspergillus bacteria Bacteriol bacterium Biol biosynthesis black yeast brine carbon cells cerevisiae chloride clones coli compatible solutes crystallizer ponds culture cyanobacteria Dead Sea dehydrogenase diversity domain Dunaliella ecology ectoine encoding environmental enzymes Eukarya eukaryotic extracellular extremely halophilic Extremophiles FEMS Microbiol Frisvad fungal fungi gas vesicle gene genome genus growth Gunde-Cimerman H werneckii habitats haloarchaea Haloarcula Halobacterium salinarum Halobacterium sp Haloferax halophilic halophilic Archaea halophilic bacteria halophilic microorganisms halotolerant hansenii heterotrophic high salt concentrations homologs Hoog hypersaline hypersaline environments hypersaline waters isolated Kamekura lichens marine marismortui membrane metabolism methanogenic Microbiology microorganisms moderately halophilic molecular NaCl nanoflagellates nucleoside diphosphate kinase Oren organisms osmotic pathway Penicillium phylogenetic Plemenitas production prokaryotes protein protozoa Rodriguez-Valera salexigens Salinibacter salinity Salt Lake salterns samples Seckbach sequence solar saltern species strain NRC-1 stress studies subunit temperature transport uptake Ventosa volcanii yeast Zalar