Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends

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Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 7, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 192 pages
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N this information era people are living in a society in which processing, ?ow and Iexchange of information are vital for their existence. Two major issues in such so- ety, which are related to ?ow and exchange of information, are connectivity and mobility. On one hand, computers and Internet provide connectivity and allow communication as well as fast access to large amounts of information. On the other hand, wireless techno- gies bring mobility. People can move and still be able to communicate and have access to various kind of information. Therefore, the functioning of an information society is unthinkable without the use of computers, Internet and wireless technologies. The exp- tations are that in the future they will merge into a unique system for communication, access to information as well as their exchange and processing. The era of wireless communications started in 1901, when Guglielmo Marconi s- cessfully transmitted radio signals across the Atlantic Ocean. From that moment up to now wireless communications experienced explosive growth and became the fastest growing ?eld in the engineering world. Pushed by customer requirements, new wireless techno- gies have been emerging very fast. Each new generation of wireless technologies have brought new features and more complexity. Pushed by market forces to reduce costs, the semiconductor industry has provided new technologies for solid-state circuits implem- tation. Fortunately at the same time with the cost reduction, performance of new te- nologies has been improving.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
11 The state of the art in multistandard RF transceivers
2
111 Standards for wireless communications
3
112 Multistandard RF transceivers
8
113 Trends in IC technology and packaging
9
12 Scope
12
13 Outline
14
Frontend architecture selection
17
44 Summary
109
RF and building block specifications
111
51 RF specifications
112
512 IIP3
113
513 Image rejection voltage gain and selectivity
114
52 Distribution of building block specifications
118
53 Summary
121
A lowvoltage folded switching mixer
123

21 A generic frontend architecture
18
212 The frequency downconversion function
21
213 Image rejection
23
214 Improvement in maximal achievable IRR
30
215 Synthesis of a generic frontend architecture
32
22 A set of frontend architectures
34
222 Twopath frontend architectures
38
23 Selection criteria
47
24 Selection of a suitable frontend architecture
48
25 Summary
51
Broadband polyphase filters
53
32 RC polyphase filters and their applications
55
321 RC polyphase filters as IF image reject filters
56
322 RC polyphase filters as IQ generators
58
33 Design considerations
63
332 Voltage gain of an RC polyphase filter
71
333 Layout considerations
74
34 Summary
77
Analysis of lowIF architectures
79
41 Noise and voltage gain analysis in a lowIF frontend
80
412 Voltage gain and noise factor of the onchip frontend
82
413 Overall voltage gain and noise figure of the lowIF frontend
94
42 Linearity analysis
95
421 IIP3 of the onchip frontend
96
422 Overall IIP3 of the lowIF frontend
101
43 Image rejection analysis
102
432 Total achievable IRR of the OCFE
107
61 Transconductors for folded switching mixers
125
62 ACcoupled folded switching mixer with currentreuse
127
622 Linearity
128
63 Simulation and experimental results
129
64 Mixer benchmarking
132
65 Summary
134
Multiband reconfigurable complex mixer
135
71 19 24 GHz reconfigurable complex mixer
136
712 Layout considerations
139
713 Simulation and experimental results
141
72 19 24 GHz conventional complex mixer
145
721 Experimental results
146
73 Summary
149
Reconfigurable multiband LNA
151
81 Design considerations
152
82 Design procedure
157
83 Design example
158
84 A reconfigurable multiband DECTBluetooth LNA
159
85 Summary
164
Reconfigurable multiband RF frontend
165
Conclusions
173
RF system and building block specifications
177
Noise factor of a twoport network
183
Noise factor of a passive RF block
185
References
187
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