Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications

Front Cover
Hartmut Janocha
Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 10, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 544 pages
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Adaptronic structures and systems can adapt automatically to variable operating and environmental conditions through the use of feedback control. But in contrast to conventional control loops, in which each function is fulfilled by a separate component, adaptronics is characterized by multifunctional components that are preferably integrated into the structure or the system. The goal is a lightweight and simple construction for conserving material and energy resources. The authors of this book have taken on the task of displaying the current state of the art in this highly modern and strongly interdisciplinary field. Selected application examples are also presented and current development trends demonstrated.

 

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Contents

68 Microactuators
225
682 Driving Mechanisms Scaling Laws and Materials
226
683 Microfluidic Systems and Components
232
684 Actuators in Microoptical Systems
239
685 Microdrives
241
686 Conclusion and Outlook
244
69 SelfSensing SolidState Actuators
245
692 SolidState Actuators
247

Signal Processing Communication and Controls
16
224 Adaptive Algorithms for Smart Structures Control
17
23 Application Examples
18
232 Structural Health Monitoring and SelfRepairing Structures
22
24 Future Adaptronic Structures
26
References
27
The Basis for Adaptronics
29
32 Basic Principles of Functional Materials
30
321 Phase Transitions and Anomalies
31
322 Microscopic Mesoscopic Macroscopic Phenomena and Symmetries
33
323 Energy Conversion
37
33 Examples of Functional Materials
40
332 Materials Responsive to Electric Magnetic and Stress Fields
42
34 Increased Functionality Through Material Engineering
45
341 Morphotropic Phase Boundary
46
342 Domain Engineering
48
343 Functional Composites
49
35 Summary
51
References
52
4 Controllers in Adaptronics
54
42 Description of the Test Articles
57
43 Conventional ModelReference Adaptive Control Techniques
58
431 Experimental Results
59
44 Adaptive Control Using Neural Networks
61
442 Neural NetworkBased Optimizing Controller With OnLine Adaptation
65
45 Robust Controllers for Structural Systems
69
451 Uncertainty Modeling
70
452 Robust Control Design Methods
71
46 Summary
72
References
73
5 Simulation of Adaptronic Systems
75
522 StateSpace Representation
76
523 Controllability and Observability
77
524 Stability
78
53 Modelling of Adaptronic Structures
79
532 Constitutive Laws of Smart Materials
80
533 Finite Element Modelling
81
534 Equations of Motion
82
535 Sensor Equations
83
54 Analysis of Adaptronic Systems and Structures
84
542 Spillover
85
55 Application Example
86
56 Optimization of Adaptronic Systems
89
562 Solution Techniques
90
57 Software Tools for Adaptronic Structure Simulation
91
573 System Identification Tools
92
6 Actuators in Adaptronics
95
612 Actuator as a System Component
97
613 Power Electronics
100
614 Intelligent and SelfSensing Actuators
101
615 Actuator Design
104
62 Piezoelectric Actuators
107
622 Materials
108
623 Design of Piezoelectric Transducers
111
624 Piezoelectric Transducer With Displacement Amplification
114
625 Piezoelectric Motors
115
626 Limitations of Piezoelectric Actuators
118
627 Example Applications of Piezoelectric Actuator Used in Adaptronics
119
628 Energy Harvesting Application Using Piezoelectric Actuators
124
63 Magnetostrictive Actuators
126
631 Theory of Magnetostriction in Magnetostrictive Devices
127
632 Principles and Properties of Various Applications
135
633 Summary
145
641 Properties of Shape Memory Alloys
146
642 Electrical Shape Memory Actuators Actuator Shape and Stroke
152
643 Perspectives for Shape Memory Actuators
157
644 Innovative Application Examples
159
645 Conclusion
163
652 Limitations to the Concept of Particulate Electrorheological Fluids
174
653 Future Aims and Present Problems
180
654 Summary of Advantages of Particulate ER Fluids
182
656 Other ER Fluids
183
66 Magnetorheological Fluid Actuators
184
661 Description of MR Fluids
185
662 Advantages and Concerns
186
663 MR Fluid Devices
189
664 Basic MR Device Design Considerations
192
665 Examples of MR Devices and Systems
196
666 Conclusion
204
672 Polyelectrolyte Gels PG
205
673 IonPolymer Metal Composites IPMC
208
674 Conducting Polymers CP
210
675 Carbon Nanotubes CNT
216
676 Dielectric Elastomers DE
217
677 Electroactive Polymers as Sensors
220
678 Final Remarks and Conclusions
224
693 SelfSensing Model for SolidState Actuators
252
694 Concept of SelfSensing SolidState Actuators
254
695 Modeling Hierarchy of SelfSensing Actuators
257
1DOF Piezoelectric Positioning System
262
697 Conclusion
265
6101 General Information About Power Electronics
266
6102 Power Electronics for Piezo Actuators and Actuators with Electrorheological Fluids
273
6103 Power Electronics for Magnetostrictive Actuators and Actuators with Magnetorheological Fluids
279
6104 How to Proceed When Choosing an Amplifier Concept
280
References
282
7 Sensors in Adaptronics
301
712 Primary Sensor Defects
302
713 Hardware Structures
304
714 Software Processes
307
Load Cell
311
716 The Impact of ASICs
312
717 Reconfigurable Systems
313
718 Communications
315
719 Trends
318
72 Fiber Optic Sensors
319
722 Basic Principle of Operation
320
723 Commonly Used Sensor Types for Deformation Measurement
322
724 Fiber Sensors for Physical and Chemical Parameters
332
725 Particular Aspects of Sensor Application
333
726 Application Examples Measurement of Strain and Strain Profiles
335
727 Research Tasks and Future Prospects
341
73 Piezoelectric Sensors
342
732 Sensor Relevant Physical Quantities
344
733 Materials and Designs Sensor Materials
347
734 Passive and Active Piezo Sensors
354
735 Piezo Sensors as Integral Components of Structures
360
736 Sensory Structures
361
737 Adaptive Structures
362
References
364
8 Adaptronic Systems in Engineering
370
812 Structural Health Monitoring
374
813 Shape Control and Active Flow
377
814 Damping of Vibration and Noise FixedWing Aircraft
385
815 Smart Skins
391
816 Control
392
82 Adaptronic Systems in Automobiles
394
822 AVCASAC Project Examples
396
823 Current Research Topics for Automotive Smart Structures
403
824 Summary and Outlook
408
83 Adaptronic Systems in Machine and Plant Construction
412
831 Grinding Machines External Plunge Grinding
413
832 Milling and Turning Machines Milling
417
833 Deep Drilling Tools Inside Turning
422
834 Adaptronic Machine Components
423
835 Conclusion
428
841 State of the Art for Active Control of Civil Engineering Structures
430
842 The Second Generation of Active Control
436
843 Application of Active Control from Practical Engineering Aspects
437
844 Results of Experimental and FullScale Tests in Japan and the US
438
845 Conclusions
442
85 Adaptronic Vibration Absorbers for Ropeway Gondolas
443
851 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers
444
852 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers for Gondola
446
853 Gyroscopic Moment Absorber for Gondola
452
854 Conclusions and Outlook on Future Research
456
9 Adaptronic Systems in Biology and Medicine
469
911 Principles of Construction and Function Coarse and Fine Structures Crossections
470
912 Analogies to Muscle Function and Fine Structure The Boulder Analogy
472
913 Muscle Contraction
473
914 Aspects of Muscle Mechanics
476
915 Principal Types of Motion Achievable by a Muscle and its Antagonists
479
916 Force and Position of Muscular Levers
482
917 Cooperation of Unequal Actuators
484
918 Muscles as Actuators in Controlled Systems Servo Assistance in the Control of Extension
486
Similarities Within Biology and Engineering
490
92 Adaptronic Systems in Medicine and Medical Technology
491
922 Adaptive Implants
493
923 Adaptive Diagnostic Systems
500
924 Conclusions and Outlook
502
References
503
Opportunities Risks and Requirements in Adaptronics
506
the Future?
510
103 But it is More Than Technology
512
104 Educating the Public
514
And Musings on Technology Transfer
515
106 And What About Technology?
516
107 Some Concluding Thoughts
517
Index
521
About the Authors
535
Copyright

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