Addiction, Crime and Insurgency: The Transnational Threat of Afghan Opium

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United Nations Publications, 2009 - Law - 143 pages
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Global opium production increasingly shifted from South- East Asia to Afghanistan during the 1990s. This trend increased in the first decade of the twenty-first century to the point that Afghanistan’s supply of opium exceeded world demand. Afghanistan is now the source for more than 90 per cent of the world’s deadliest drug. The Afghan drug trade spreads crime, corruption, addiction and HIV. It is a major source of revenue for insurgents, criminals and terrorists. It undermines governance, public health, and public security within Afghanistan and along trafficking routes. In short, it poses a major transnational threat to health and security. The report reveals how the flows of Afghan opiates are distributed in the world, and the extent to which regional insurgency or instability is fuelled by the Afghan opiate industry.
 

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Contents

The Opiate Trade
25
2 Demand and supply
26
3 Opiate seizures
32
4 Global opiate flows
36
5 Opiate trafficking routes
61
6 Value of the opiate trade
66
7 Afghan opiates in new markets
67
B The source of the trade
77
3 Organized crime
104
4 The opiate value chain and insecurity
106
5 Insurgency funding derived from trafficking
111
7 The opiate economy and the arms trade
112
Tribal links insecurity and corruption
115
1 Opium cultivation and the Durrani confederation
117
2 Insurgency tribalism and the drug trade
119
3 The AfghanPakistani border
120

2 Opium poppyfree provinces
89
3 Profile of opium poppy growing farmers and nongrowing farmers
94
4 Poverty and motivation behind opium poppy cultivation
96
5 Farmers income from opium in Afghanistan
98
The Opiate Economy A transnational security threat
101
1 AntiGovernment Elements and insecurity in Afghanistan
102
2 Insurgent groups linked to AlQaeda and the Taliban
103
4 The tribal areas of Pakistan
122
5 North Western Frontier Province NWFP
129
6 Balochistan
131
7 Refugee camps
136
8 Corruption
137
Concluding Remarks
143
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