Adjective Intensification--learners Versus Native Speakers: A Corpus Study of Argumentative Writing
This volume represents one of the first full-length studies carried out on material from the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), supplemented by data from younger learners and native speakers. It addresses three main goals: a) the implementation of a developmental corpus methodology. The study explores four corpora of argumentative writing, two sampled from advanced learners of different ages and two from corresponding native speakers of English. This way, the respective linguistic maturation in native and non-native writing can be traced with more explanatory power than could be yielded by a mere learner / native speaker contrast. b) a functional account of adjective intensification in present-day written English. Intensification is a singularly dynamic and innovative lexico-grammatical class. Despite their obvious limitations, small, text-type controlled corpora, such as the ones used here, make it feasible to examine this whole functional paradigm and identify the conceptual mechanisms of its continual innovation and semantic change. c) the exploration of native vs. non-native usage and the notion of idiomaticity. The main differences between native English usage and that of advanced learners rest not so much on grammatical structure, but on the rather elusive quality of 'idiomaticity'. In the limited domain of intensification, this notion is explored both qualitatively and arithmetically, with the aim of learning more about what it takes to use English idiomatically.
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The Significance of Intensification
The Adjective as Focus of Intensification
a Motley Collection
Clearing the Ground
OpenClass Intensifiers and their Semantic Mechanisms
Deficits and Deviations
Global Measures and Stylistic Differences
Summary and Implications
Intensified Adjectives NS Freq SF
Intensifiers NNS Freq SF
AdjInt MiScores NS
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absolutely adj-int combinations adj-int function adjectival quality adjective intensification advanced learners adverbs Altenberg amplifiers analysis Applied Linguistics attributive adjectives awfully Bolinger boosters boring C-class intensifiers CCED cline COBUILD collocations Compare completely Computer context corpus counts corpus linguistics corpus size creative degree delexicalisation downtoners emphasis emphatic English errors essays EVALUATIVE example express figures foreign language four corpora frequency German learners gradable grammar grammaticalisation Granger Halliday highly idiomaticity information structure instances intensified adjectives interested BWF interlanguage John McH KWIC learner corpus less litotes maximizers meaning modal modifiers Mutual Information native speakers negative non-native noun phrase occur OED2 overall particularly pattern perfectly position possible predicative Quirk Quirkian relatively restricted scalar categories scores semantic categories SEMANTIC FEATURE COPYING semantic prosodies significant Sinclair statistical stupid stylistic surprising Svartvik syntactic tion tive typical underuse usage versus word-formation words
Page 6 - My topic is, then, that whenever speakers (or writers) say anything, they encode their point of view towards it: whether they think it is a reasonable thing to say, or might be found to be obvious, questionable, tentative, provisional, controversial, contradictory, irrelevant, impolite, or whatever.
Page 2 - Why should I think that what you tell me is true?", and the armchair linguist says to the corpus linguist, "Why should I think that what you tell me is interesting?" This paper is a report of an armchair linguist who refuses to give up his old ways but who finds profit in being a consumer of some of the resources that corpus linguists have created. I have two main observations to make. The first is that I don't think there can be any corpora, however large, that...