Adolescents and risk: Behaviors, functions and protective factors

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Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 3, 2005 - Psychology - 372 pages
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Over the past several decades, the field of adolescent health and devel- ment has undergone a profound and pervasive transformation in the kno- edge and understanding of young lives. Popular myths about adolescent- that they are hapless victims of “raging hormones”or risk-takers who see themselves as invulnerable - have been laid to rest. But even more imp- tant has been the emergence of a new,scientific perspective about this stage of life. It is a perspective that recognizes that adolescents are active parti- pants in the shaping of their own development; that the influence of c- text - family,peers,school,media,neighborhood,workplace - is as important in determining the life course as are the attributes of the individual and, indeed,that it is the interaction between context and individual attributes that is really crucial; that there is remarkable diversity in the pathways that can be taken by youth as they traverse between late childhood and young adu- hood; and that the adolescent life-stage is, itself, an extended one - a full decade of the life trajectory with very different tasks, opportunities, and challenges in the later years than in the earlier years. It is this new,scient- ic perspective that so thoroughly informs the present volume by Silvia Bo- no,Elena Cattelino,and Silvia Ciairano. The volume is an impressive contribution to understanding risk behavior among contemporary Italian adolescents,but it goes far beyond that to advance understanding of adolescent behavior and development as a whole.
 

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Contents

Risk Behavior in Adolescence
1
12 Development as Action in Context
6
13 Developmental Tasks
13
Box 11 Developmental Tasks in Adolescence
14
14 Risk and WellBeing
16
An Adult Projection
20
15 Functions of Risk Behavior
22
Continuity and Change
24
453 Adolescent Escape
133
46 Protective Factors
136
52 Multiple Forms of Antisocial Behavior
145
521 Gender Differences
147
522 School Differences
148
523 Age Differences
149
53 Functions of Antisocial Behavior
150
532 Social Visibility Acceptance and Desirability
154

The Study
33
22 The Instrument
36
23 The Sample
37
24 Presentation of Results and Statistical Analysis
39
Psychoactive Substance Use
41
311 Cigarette Smoking
43
312 Alcohol Consumption
46
313 Marijuana Smoking
50
314 The Use of Different Substances
53
32 Age and Context of Initiation
56
321 Precociousness Contexts of Use and Risk
57
33 Homogeneity Within Peer Groups
59
Models and Attitudes
61
35 Functions of Psychoactive Substance Use
64
351 All Grown Up
66
352 Cigarettes Marijuana and Transgression
68
Box 31 Moderate Drinkers
72
353 What Is It Like? Experimentation
73
354 The Ritual Function
74
355 Marijuana Use as an Escape
76
Box 32 High Risk Adolescents
79
36 Protective Factors
81
361 What Type of Knowledge Is Most Useful?
82
362 The School Experience
84
363 Use of Free Time
90
364 External Regulation Supportand Control
86
411 Males and Risk
100
42 Functions of RiskTaking Behavior
106
421 SelfAffirmation and Experimentation
107
422 Identification and Social Acceptance
109
A Step Toward Independence
113
44 Risky Driving
116
441 Offenses Risks and Accidents
119
442 Driving Under the Influence of Psychoactive Substances
122
Box 41 Road Accidents and Heuristic Reasoning
123
Box 42 Driving Ability Driving Style and the Consumption of Psychoactive Substances in Adolescence
126
443 Fines
127
45 Functions of Risky Driving
128
451 Adulthood SelfAffirmation and Experimentation
129
452 Identification and Peer Emulation
132
Box 51 SelfExoneration Self and External Regulation
159
533 Transgression and Relations with Authority
161
54 Antisocial Behavior in Context
165
542 The School Experience
170
543 Peers
173
544 Free Time
176
Sexual Behavior Contraception and AIDS
182
Age and School Differences
185
63 Sexuality in Boys and Girts
190
64 Contraception and the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Behavior Relational Conditions Attitudes and Knowledge Which Is Most Impo...
193
642 Information and Attitudes Toward Contraception
196
643 Knowledge on the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases such as AIDS
197
644 Knowing Is Essential but Is It Enough?
199
65 Functions of Sexual Behavior in Adolescence
201
Realization Anticipation and Exasperation
202
652 Adolescent Sexual Activity as Transgression Experimentation and Exploration
206
653 Ritual and Emulation Functions
211
What Is the Difference?
215
655 Different Functions of Sexual Activity in Relation to the Way It Is Carried Out
216
66 Adolescents and Pregnancy
218
67 Family School Experience and Friends as Protective and Risk Factors
219
Gender Differences
229
73 Knowledge of the Risks Involved in an Unhealthy Lifestyle
231
A Controversial Relationship
234
742 Eating Body Image Knowledge and Models
237
A Gender Phenomenon
239
752 Different Patterns of Disturbed Eating
241
76 Functions of Disturbed Eating
245
761 Disturbed Eating as an Emotional Strategy for Problem Resolution and a Way to Affirm Independence and Competence
246
762 Disturbed Eating as Transgression Experimentation and a Way of Exercising Control
249
763 Disturbed Eating as Communication Emulation and Surpassing
251
764 The Highest Risk Group
254
77 Main Protective and Risk Factors
256
82 Prevention Methods
266
The Main Protective Factors
268
Direct and Indirect Action
272
85 Which Type of Knowledge What to Avoid
277
86 Conclusion
279
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