Advanced Design and Manufacturing Based on STEP

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Xun Xu, Andrew Yeh Ching Nee
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 29, 2009 - Technology & Engineering - 481 pages
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Design and manufacturing is the essential element in any product development lifecycle. Industry vendors and users have been seeking a common language to be used for the entire product development lifecycle that can describe design, manufacturing and other data pertaining to the product. Many solutions were proposed, the most successful being the Stadndard for Exchange of Product model (STEP). STEP provides a mechanism that is capable of describing product data, independent from any particular system. The nature of this description makes it suitable not only for neutral file exchange, but also as a basis for implementing, sharing and archiving product databases. ISO 10303-AP203 is the first and perhaps the most successful AP developed to exchange design data between different CAD systems. Going from geometric data (as in AP203) to features (as in AP224) represents an important step towards having the right type of data in a STEP-based CAD/CAM system. Of particular significance is the publication of STEP-NC, as an extension of STEP to NC, utilising feature-based concepts for CNC machining purposes. The aim of this book is to provide a snapshot of the recent research outcomes and implementation cases in the field of design and manufacturing where STEP is used as the primary data representation protocol. The 20 chapters are contributed by authors from most of the top research teams in the world. These research teams are based in national research institutes, industries as well as universities.
 

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Contents

107 Conclusions
228
Acknowledgment
230
Standardised Process Control System for CNC Manufacturing Sanjeev Kumar1 and Stephen T Newman2
232
112 Process Control
234
1121 Definitions
237
1123 Process Control Solutions for CNC Machine Tools
238
113 Review of Process Control Systems
242
114 A Standardised Process Control Framework
243

17 STEP Integrated Resources
11
18 Application Protocol AP
12
182 ARM Application Reference Model
13
183 AIM Application Interpreted Model
14
186 AM Application Module
15
110 STEPNC
16
111 STEP into the Future
17
Appendix Sources of Information about STEP
18
References
19
Featurebased Process Planning Based on STEP Thomas Kramer1 and Frederick Proctor2
23
22 Process Plans
24
222 ISO 14649 and AP 238 Process Planning Languages
28
223 AP 240 Process Planning Language
31
224 FBICSALPS Process Planning Languages
33
225 Summary Table
36
24 Featurebased Process Planning
38
242 Features and Process Planning
39
25 FBICS to ISO 14649
45
26 Conclusion
46
References
47
A Heuristic STEPNC Based Process Planning Tool for Sequencing NC Machining Operations Ulrich Berger1 Ralf Kretzschmann2 and KlausPeter Ar...
49
32 State of the Art and Related Work
51
322 Challenge and Problems in the Process Chain
52
323 STEPNC STEP Compliant Numerical Control
53
324 Process Planning in the STEPNC Process Chain
55
325 Mathematical Formulizing of the Statement of Problem
58
33 Objectives and Requirements for Sequencing of Machining Operations
59
332 Objectives and Requirements of a New Solution
60
342 Functional Principle and Application Scope
61
343 Architecture and Modules
63
345 Workflow for the Knowledgebased NC Programming System
68
346 Approach for Sequencing Algorithm
70
35 Technical Realization and Evaluation
72
36 Conclusion and Outlook
74
References
75
STEPNC++ An Effective Tool for Featurebased CAMCNC John Michaloski1 Thomas Kramer2 Frederick Proctor3 Xun Xu4 Sid Venkatesh5 and Da...
79
42 Featurebased CAM to Featurebased CNC
81
43 Feedforward Tolerancing
85
44 Smarter Machining Process Parameterization
89
45 STEPNC++ Implementation
91
46 Validation and Analysis
95
47 Discussion
101
Disclaimer
102
A STEPCompliant Approach to Turning Operations Yusri Yusof1 and Keith Case2
105
511 Standard Product Data Exchange
106
512 STEPNC Environment for Manufacturing
107
52 Related Work
108
SCSTO
110
54 Case Study Component
118
55 Conclusion
120
References
121
Circular Sawblade Stone Cutting Technology Based on STEPNC Julio Garrido Campos
125
62 Stone Cutting Process Needs
128
63 Understanding and Modelling Stone Cutting Processes
129
632 Automatic Stone Cutting Machines
130
633 An Example
132
64 STEPNC Data Model for Sawblade Stone Cutting
133
641 Disc Sawblade Cutting Features
134
642 Sawblade Cutting Operation Data
136
643 Data Model Implementation
139
65 Conclusions
140
Acknowledgments
141
Open Platform Development for STEPcompliant CNC Tianliang Hu1 Chengrui Zhang2 Riliang Liu3 and Lin Yang4
145
72 Requirement Analysis
146
722 Implementing Level Requirement Analysis
149
73 System Structure
150
74 Design Specification of Engine Based System
152
741 Design of Decision Unit DU
153
743 Design of EMI
157
745 Design of EtherMC Hardware Platform
159
746 Secondary Development Scenario
161
752 Design of FDD
162
753 Hooking up FDD with SE and HMI
166
76 Conclusion
167
References
168
STEPNC in Support of Machining Process Optimization LiangjiXu
169
82 Cutting Force in Machining Processes
172
83 Tool Path Crosssection in Milling
174
84 Parameterization of the Tool Path Crosssection
176
85 Forcebased Feed Optimization
179
851 Feed Derivation
180
852 Multiple Machine System Constraints
181
86 Other Optimization Methods
182
862 Volumebased Optimization
184
863 Constantchip Optimization
185
864 Machine System Dynamics
187
87 Optimization Implementation Plans
188
871 Implementation at CAM
189
873 Implementation with an Independent System
190
874 Example of Optimization with an Independent System
191
88 Conclusions
192
References
194
Achieving a STEPNC Enabled Advanced NC Programming Environment Matthieu Rauch1 Raphael Laguionie2 and JeanYves Hascoet3
197
92 A New Role for the NC Controller into the Numerical Chain
198
921 Advanced CNC Programming and Machining
199
922 Highlevel Toolpath Generation
203
93 STEPNC Platform for Advanced and Intelligent Manufacturing SPAIM
204
931 Machining a Part from a STEPNC File
205
932 A STEPNC Platform for Industrial Machine Tools
206
933 Benefits of a STEPNC Enabled Controller
209
934 Toward Advanced CNC Programming
211
94 Conclusions
212
References
213
STEPcompliant CNC Systems Present and Future Directions Van Khai Nguyen1 and John Stark2
215
102 The STEPNC Standard
217
1021 Details of the STEPNC Standard
219
103 Limitations of STEPNC
221
104 The Current State of STEPNC Practice and Research
222
105 The Current Problem Statement
223
106 The Next Steps Beyond the State of the Art
224
1061 Data and Information in the PLM Environment
225
1062 Next Generation Controller
227
115 Process Control Information Model
245
116 A Computational Prototype of Standardised Process Control System SProCS
248
117 Realisation of SProCS
252
118 Conclusions
255
Acknowledgment
257
A STEPNC Compliant Methodology for Modelling Manufacturing Resources Aydin Nassehi1 and Parag Vichare2
261
122 Manufacturing Resource Modelling
262
1221 Manufacturing Resource Representation Methodologies
263
1222 Perspectives for Resource Modelling in the Context of Manufacturing
265
1223 Modelling Approaches in the Context of Modelling Perspectives
267
123 A Modelling Framework for Technological Manufacturing Resources
268
1231 CNC Machine Tools and Auxiliary Devices
269
1233 Kinematic Chains
270
1241 Mechanical Machine Element
271
1243 Axes of Movement
273
125 Example Models
274
1252 3Axis Milling Centre
276
1253 5Axis Milling Centre
277
1254 Parallel Kinematics Machine
278
126 Future Developments
279
127 Conclusions
280
Development of Digital Semantic Machining Models for STEPNC Based on STEP Technology
282
132 Digital Semantic Machining Model
285
1322 Modelling and Implementation of Digital Semantic Machining Models
286
133 Product Data Quality Assurance Method
287
1331 Current Problems of Checking the Quality of Product Data
288
1332 A Software for Checking the Quality of Product Data
289
1333 Constituents of Proposed Method
290
1334 Example of Checking Quality of Product Data
291
134 Machining Features for 3+2 Axis Machining
292
1341 Concepts of 3+2 Axis Machining
293
1343 Extraction Method of 3+2 Axis Machining Features
295
1344 Example
296
135 Machine Tools for ISO 14649 CNC Data Model
297
1352 Machine Tool Model Based on STEP Kinematic Model
298
1353 Prototype of 5Axis Machine Tool for ISO 14649 CNC Data Model
300
1354 Practical Results
301
136 Conclusions
302
Acknowledgment
303
Development of a STEPNC Network Management Protocol for Decentralized Manufacturing Francesco Calabrese1 and Amedeo Buonanno2
307
142 Overview of STEPNC
309
143 Decentralized Manufacturing Solution
310
1431 STEPNC Network Management Protocol
311
1432 Details of the Components
313
1433 Simplified and Hybrid Architectures
317
1434 SNMP Compliant Controller
318
1437 Toolpath Generator
319
1441 Evaluation of the Performance of the System
324
145 Conclusion
327
References
328
A Generic Product Modelling Framework for Rapid Development of Customised Products Shane Q Xie1 and WanLin Chen2
330
A Review
333
153 Generic Product Information Framework
335
1532 Fivephase Modelling Methodology
338
1533 EDM Data Exchange and Sharing Methods
339
154 EXPRESS Data Model
340
155 Case Study
342
1552 Tooling Information
343
1553 Machine Tool Information
344
1554 Manufacturing Information
345
156 STEP Compliant Product Data Management System
346
157 Conclusion and Future Work
348
Acknowledgment
349
Reference
350
STEP in the Context of Product Data Management Vijay Srinivasan
353
162 Product Data and Metadata
355
1622 Product Metadata
357
163 STEP PDM Schema
360
165 Others to Watch
379
Acknowledgment
380
STEP in the Context of PLM Chandresh Mehta1 Lalit Patil2 and Debasish Dutta3
383
172 Overview of Standards for PLM
385
1721 EIA649 National Consensus Standard for Configuration Management
386
1725 ISO 10303239 STEP AP 239
387
1726 STEPbased Standards
388
1732 Requirements for Exchange and Reuse of ECM Data
389
1733 Suitability of STEP for Exchange and Reuse of ECM Data
390
1734 Enhancing EC Representation in STEP Change Evaluation Model
391
1735 Example Application of CEM
393
174 Further Issues and Directions
394
1742 AbstractAmbiguous Definitions
396
Acknowledgment
397
Usage of Agent Technology to Coordinate Data Exchange in the Extended Enterprise Omar LópezOrtega1 and Karla López de la Cruz2
398
182 Integrated EXPRESS Model
401
1822 Semantic Integration to Represent Core Capabilities
402
1823 The Integrated EXPRESS Model
404
183 Model and Implementation of the Multiagent System
405
1832 Communication Protocols among Agents to Support Data Exchange
406
1834 Exemplification of a Business Process Type
412
184 On the Networking of Enterprises
415
185 Conclusions
416
An XML Implementation for Data Exchange of Heterogeneous Object Models XY Kou1 and ST Tan2
419
192 XML Technologies and ISO 10303
421
193 An XML Implementation for Data Exchange of Heterogeneous Object Models 1931 Existing Heterogeneous Object Models
422
1932 Representing Material Heterogeneity with XML
426
194 Implementations and a Case Study
433
195 Conclusions
436
Modulebased Platform for Seamless Interoperable CADCAMCNC Planning Christian Brecher1 Wolfram Lohse2 and Mirco Vitr3
439
202 Deficits in the Interoperability of Existing CAM Tools
441
2021 CAM Tools in Todays Business Processes
442
2022 Limits of Current CAM Systems
443
2032 Application of the Platform for Open Computerbased Manufacturing
445
204 Design Concept for the Modulebased Platform
446
2041 System Architecture of openCBM
447
2043 Interoperable Data Structures Based on STEP Standards
449
205 Use Cases for the Modulebased Platform
451
2052 Process Data Acquisition and a Process Information Database
458
206 Conclusions
460
Acknowledgements
461
Index
471
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About the author (2009)

Xun Xu’s recent work centres around the deployment of the STEP-NC data model, in replacement of the 50-year-old G-code model, to achieve a total integrated CAD/CAM/CNC scenario. He was invited to chair an editorial panel to lead a Special Issue on "STEP-Compliant Process Planning and Manufacturing" for the International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing.

Associate Professor Xu obtained his PhD from UMIST, UK, and is now a member of the Department of Manufacturing Engineering at the University of Auckland, where he is Director of the Intelligent and Interoperable Manufacturing Systems Research Group, and Head of the Manufacturing Systems Laboratory.

Associate Professor Xu is a member of the editorial boards for several journals, including the International Journal of Production Research and Robotics & Computer Integrated Manufacturing.

Andrew Y. C. Nee has been working on several areas in manufacturing engineering, including computer-aided mould, die and fixture design; distributed manufacturing systems; and augmented reality applications in manufacturing. His most recent co-edited book, entitled Collaborative Design and Planning for Digital Manufacturing, was published by Springer in early 2009.

Professor Nee earned his PhD from the Victoria University of Manchester and joined the University of Singapore the following year. In 1982 he became the first person from outside the USA to be awarded the Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer's Award from the Society of Manufacturing Engineers. He is currently Director of the Office of Research at the National University of Singapore, as well as chairman of Manusoft Technologies Pte Ltd.

Professor Nee is regional editor of Springer's International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and of the International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, in addition to being a member of the editorial boards for another 20 journals in manufacturing engineering. He currently holds the chairmanship of the Scientific and Technical Committee Design and is also a council member.