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authors foreword page
Further Remarks on Abacus History
Negative Answers from Subtraction
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26 on FG abacus operation ABC Fig ABCDE accuracy add the product algebraic expression answer Fig Assortment 1 GROUP Chinese abacus cipher system clear F clears the board complementary number corresponds decimal fraction DEFG Disadvantages Advantages divided dividend Unit divisor EFGH FGH Fig finding the unit five-unit counter gives GROUP C 70 Japan Japanese leaves method of division method of multiplication mixed decimal multiplication and division Nihon University Number borrowed Number returned number subtracted older method product 12 product 20 product forms quotient forms Quotient Rule reckoning blocks respect to 100 rod Step second digit Set the dividend Set the multiplicand set the product significant digit square root standard method Step 1 Step subtract the product subtracting 9 tenths place tiplier tract the product trial quotient figure unit digit unit place unit rod Fig Variant whole digit written calculation