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ULTRASONIC EMISSIONS IN SNOW
INCORPORATION OF GLIDE AND CREEP MEASUREMENTS
MATERIAL PROPERTY AND BOUNDARY CONDITION EFFECTS
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acoustic activity acoustic emission acoustic response acoustic signals acoustic velocity airblast amplitude applied avalanche release baseline bed surface Berthoud Pass blasting bottom layer boundary conditions compression crack crater creep deformation rates depth hoar downslope E. R. LaChapelle effect elastic emission response explosives Figure finite element ft/lb Glaciol glide speed Graupel ice grains impact pressure increase initial interface LaChapelle l970 linear load Low Temp major layer material properties maximum shear measurements Mellor nonlinear normal observed fracture line Perla l97l Poisson's ratio properties of snow R. J. Evans radius Scaled Charge Depth shear failure shear strength shear stress shock wave slab avalanche snow density snow slab mechanics snow surface snowpack Sommerfeld specimen statistical strength of snow stress concentration stress distribution stress wave techniques tensile strength tests top layer transducer typical variation viscoelastic voids volume of snow weak sublayer Weibull Weibull distribution Young's modulus zero zone