Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 20, 2007 - Science - 366 pages
1 Review
Natural and social scientists face a great challenge in the coming decades: to understand the role that humans play in ecosystems, particularly urban ecosystems. Cities and urbanizing regions are complex coupled hum- natural systems in which people are the dominant agents. As humans transform natural landscapes into highly human-dominated environments, they create a new set of ecological conditions by changing ecosystem processes and dynamics. Urbanization changes natural habitats and species composition, alters hydrological systems, and modifies energy flows and nutrient cycles. Although the impacts of urban development on ecosystems occur locally, they cause environmental changes at larger scales. Envir- mental changes resulting from urbanization influence human behaviors and dynamics and affect human health and well-being. Remarkable progress has been made in studying the impact of urban de- lopment on ecosystem functions (McDonnell and Pickett 1993, McDonnell et al. 1997, Grimm et al. 2000, Pickett et al. 2001, Alberti et al. 2003), yet the interactions and feedback between human processes and ecosystem dynamics in urbanizing regions are still poorly understood. In this book I argue that new syntheses across the natural and social sciences are necessary if urban and ecological dynamics are to be successfully integrated into a common fra- work to advance urban ecology research. If we remain within the traditional disciplinary boundaries, we will not make progress towards a theory of urban ecosystems as coupled human-ecological systems, because no single disc- line can provide an unbiased and integrated perspective.
 

What people are saying - Write a review

User Review - Flag as inappropriate

give me a read to 197 pages to 366 pages

Contents

THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM
1
11 The Dynamics of Urban EcoSystems
8
12 Cities as Human Systems
15
13 Cities as Ecological Systems
16
14 Cities as Hybrid Ecosystems
17
15 Complexity Emergent Properties and SelfOrganization
20
16 Resilience in Urban Ecosystems
22
17 Rationale for a Synthesis
25
BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES
163
62 The Carbon Cycle
167
63 The Sulfur Cycle
170
64 The Phosphorus Cycle
172
65 The Nitrogen Cycle
174
66 Urban Patterns and Nutrient Cycling
176
ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES
182
72 Urban Air Quality and Climate Change
186

OF ECOSYSTEMS HUMANS AS A COMPONENT
27
21 Emergence and Evolution of Settlement Patterns
29
22 Modeling Urban Development and Ecology
34
23 An AgentBased Hierarchical Model
43
24 Modeling Changes in Land Use and Land Cover
49
25 Changes in Land Use and Land Cover in Central Puget Sound
54
URBAN PATTERNS AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION
61
32 Net Primary Productivity
78
33 Hydrological Function
79
34 Nutrient Cycles
81
35 Biodiversity
82
36 Disturbance Regimes
85
37 An Empirical Study in Puget Sound
86
LANDSCAPE SIGNATURES
93
42 Gradients Patches Networks and Hierarchies
95
43 Urban Landscape Signatures
103
44 Measuring Urban Landscape Patterns
112
45 Detecting Landscape Patterns in Puget Sound
117
46 Monitoring Landscape Change in Puget Sound
126
HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
132
52 Urban Hydrological Functions
137
53 HumanInduced Changes in Urban Watersheds
144
54 Urban Patterns and Stream Biotic Integrity
152
73 Urban Heat Islands
187
74 Urban Patterns and Air Quality
194
POPULATION AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS
197
82 Urban Patch Dynamics
207
83 Urban Ecosystem Processes and Biodiversity
210
A Case Study in the Puget Sound
217
FUTURES OF URBAN ECOSYSTEMS
225
92 Complexity and Predictability
227
93 Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity
231
94 Threshold Discontinuity and Surprises
232
95 Scenario Planning and Adaptive Management
237
96 Hypothetical Scenarios of Urban Ecosystem Functions
242
URBAN ECOLOGY A SYNTHESIS
251
102 Toward a Theory of Urban Ecology
254
103 Building Integrated Models
261
104 A Research Agenda for Urban Ecology
263
105 Implications for Urban Planning
267
106 A Final Note
270
GLOSSARY
272
REFERENCES
277
INDEX
355
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Bibliographic information