Advances in chemical-mechanical polishing: symposium held April 13-15, 2004, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
Materials Research Society, 2004 - Technology & Engineering - 292 pages
While now in widespread use in integrated circuit fabrication, chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is also starting to appear in a surprisingly wide range of applications, with a growing variety of processes and technologies. Applications include planarization of surface topography, "polish back" or creation of in-laid materials in other structures, and reduction of surface roughness (e.g., for 3D wafer bonding and substrate engineering). This volume, the seventh in an annual series on CMP, presents new advances in fundamental understanding, development, and applications of CMP. CMP of both conventional and nonconventional materials are discussed. Conventional materials polished using CMP include silicon, oxides and nitrides, polysilicon, and other insulating films, as well as copper, tungsten, barrier films, and other metal films. Nonconventional materials include those of increasing importance in advanced semiconductor, MEMS, and nanotechnologies, such as low-k dielectrics and polymer, nickel, and ruthenium films. CMP in IC fabrication continues to pose substantial problems-for virgin silicon wafer preparation, shallow-trench isolation (STI) structures, and poly or other deeptrench structure formation, as well as copper and low-k metal interconnect. New developments in CMP pads (grooving, fixed abrasive, ceramic coated) and slurries (SiO2, Al2O3, CeO2, coated or doped, polymer or BN as abrasive) are presented. Novel polishing methods and equipment such as controlled high-pressure atmosphere, water jet conditioning or novel polishing head designs are described. Advances in CMP process understanding and modeling are also highlighted.
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Investigation of the Influence of Different Copper Slurry
Copper CMP Formulation for 65 nm Device Planarization
Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Oxidation of Copper
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2004 Materials Research abrasive abrasive particles addition agglomeration alumina asperity layer barrier CMP barrier metal behavior bonding ceria slurry cerium characterization Chemical Mechanical Polishing Chemical-Mechanical Polishing CMP model CMP process concentration copper CMP Cu(I damascene dependence dielectric dishing and erosion downforce effect Electrochem electroplating erosion etch evaluated film thickness fixed abrasive flow friction fumed silica function glycine grooves hydrogen peroxide increase interactions ISBN line width low-k material removal Materials Research Society measurements metal nanotopography overpolish oxide and nitride pad asperity pad surface parameters pattern density patterned wafers peroxide planarization length polish rate polishing pad post-CMP pressure distribution Proc region removal rate rotation scan scribe lane Semiconductor shear sheet resistance shown in Figure shows silica slurry silicon step height structures substrate Symp thinning topography Type 2 pad variation wafer wafer carrier wafer surface wafer-level zeta potential