## Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines: Rotors, Loads and StructureWind power is an increasingly significant renewable energy resource, producing no environmentally damaging CO2 emissions. The efficient production of electricity by wind turbines relies on aerodynamics: Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines provides the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Following a historical introduction, Part 1 of Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is concerned with basic rotor aerodynamics, while Part 2 deals with structural aspects of the wind turbine and calculation of the loads on it. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is an essential reference for both engineering students and others with a professional or academicinterest in the physics and technologies behind horizontal axis wind turbines. It will provide a sound understanding of the mechanisms behind the generation of forces on a wind turbine. |

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Aerodinamics

### Contents

General introduction to wind turbines | 1 |

Basic rotor aerodynamics | 9 |

Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics | 11 |

Twodimensional aerodynamics | 12 |

Threedimensional aerodynamics | 22 |

The vortex system of a wind turbine | 28 |

Onedimensional momentum theory for an ideal wind turbine | 31 |

Shrouded rotors | 44 |

Loads and structure | 89 |

Introduction to loads and structures | 91 |

The main loads on a horizontalaxis wind turbine | 93 |

Structures of a wind turbine blade | 95 |

Beam theory for a wind turbine blade | 97 |

An easy way to determine the eigenmodes | 112 |

Sources for loads on a wind turbine | 116 |

Fatigue | 126 |

The blade element momentum method | 48 |

Annual energy production | 60 |

Example | 62 |

Controlregulation and safety systems | 67 |

Optimization | 80 |

Limitations of BEM | 85 |

Final remarks | 131 |

Basic Equations in Fluid Mechanics | 135 |

Symbols | 138 |

140 | |

143 | |

### Common terms and phrases

adverse pressure gradient aeroelastic code aerofoil angle of attack angular deformation annual energy production approximately axial induction factor axial velocity beam bending moment bending moments Betz limit blade element momentum boundary layer chord computed constant control volume deflection denotes diffuser drag coefficients eigenmode element momentum method fluid given high wind speeds horizontal-axis wind turbine induced velocity laminar leading edge lift force mass flow mean stress modern wind turbine momentum equation momentum theory nominal power normal force number of blades number of cycles pitch pitch-regulated machine pitch-regulated wind turbine power coefficient power curve power output Prandtl's tip-loss factor pressure gradient principal axis radius rotational speed rotor plane rotorplane roughness length seen in Figure shear shown in Figure spanwise stall stall-regulated wind turbine stiffness streamlines thrust coefficient tip speed ratio torque trailing edge turbulent vector vortex system vortices wake wind turbine blade wing yaw angle zero