Africa and the International Law of the Sea: A Study of the Contribution of the African States to the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea
Antarctica & the Southern Ocean cover one-tenth of the earth's surface. In a legal & environmental sense, Antarctica represents the geography of hope. It is the freshest & most pristine of regions, governed by a legal regime that offers Antarctica & its circumpolar water the unique possibility of becoming the world's first global wilderness preserve. But in today's age of resource scarcity, Antarctica still provokes much political, economic & legal debate. Over the past decade, international attention has increasingly focused on the legal status of the continent, the potential for hydrocarbon exploitation offshore, & opportunities for harvesting circumpolar living marine resources. In this fascinating treatment, Christopher C. Joyner undertakes the first serious examination of the intimate relationship between Antarctica & the law of the sea. Using Antarctica as a case study, Joyner probes large conceptual issues of ocean law & politics. He uses the intricate details of oceanography & law to unravel the dynamics of the Antarctic Treaty System. In doing so, he examines how the changing importance of Antarctic issues has affected the development of the law of the sea for the region, the ways in which states define their national interests, & the accommodation through various negotations that have contributed to the development of law for governing the Southern Ocean. While the study of law for the Antarctic is provocative in itself, this work goes much farther. The study critically analyzes the region's biogeography, the condition of sovereignty on the continent, the lawfulness of asserting jurisdictional zones offshore, & various legal implications for Antarctica's continental shelf, local island groups, circumpolar deep seabed, & the Southern Ocean's high seas. Moreover, the special legal efforts by the international community to protect the Antarctic seas from marine pollution & to conserve its living marine resources are comprehensively appraised. Thorough, authoritative, & objectively reasoned, Antarctica & the Law of the Sea provides an insightful assessment of how law can progressively develop for a resource-rich region of the world's ocean. As such, it should appeal to a broad range of international lawyers & social scientists who are interested in international relations, political economy, environmental politics, & the law of the sea.
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A/CONF activities adopted advocated African countries African land-locked agreements Assembly resolution Charter claimed co-operation coastal colonial common heritage concept contiguous zone continent continental shelf Declaration of Principles delegate developing countries disputes Draft articles emphasis added emphasized establishment exclusive economic zone exercize favour fishing freedom of navigation Geneva Convention Ghana Group of 77 heritage of mankind high seas ibid innocent passage interests international community International Seabed Authority issues Kenya land-locked countries Lesotho limits of national living resources Madagascar marine environment maritime Meeting ment miles minerals national jurisdiction natural resources Nigeria OAU Declaration ocean Official Records participation peaceful permanent sovereignty political position powers problems proposal recognized regime regional regulation scientific research seabed area Seabed Committee sovereign rights statements straits superjacent waters Tanzania territorial sea tion tional transfer of technology treaty Tunisia UNCLOS UNCLOS III United Nations views Yaounde Yaounde Conclusions Zambia