African Music: Traditional and Contemporary
It is customary in the Western world for people to use the term 'African music' as if it were a single clearly identifiable phenomenon. Yet when one considers the size of the continent (the second largest in the world), the enormous differences in climate and terrain producing contrasting ways of life across the land mass, and, above all, its extreme multilingualism (more than 1800 different languages constituting a third of the world's languages), one should not be surprised at the diversity of music and the difficulty of isolating distinctly African features common to the whole continent. Besides, the study of its music did not proceed everywhere with equal thoroughness, insight or purpose. This new and important book is an overview of music in Africa.
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INSTRUMENT DISTRIBUTION AREA
THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE XYLOPHONE AMONG THE LOBI DAGARTI AND SISALA OF GHANA
FUNCTIONS OF THE XYLOPHONE IN GHANA
MBIRA SANSA HAND PIANO
STRUCTURES IN AFRICAN MUSIC
THE STRUCTURAL ROLE OF HANDCLAPPING BELLS AND OTHER NONMELODIC IDIOPHONES IN AFRICAN MUSIC
MUSICAL TRADITIONS OF SOME SOCIETIES IN WEST AFRICA
THE PLACE OF DANCE MOVEMENT IN AFRICA
MUSIC OF EVENTS OF THE LIFE CYCLE
MUSIC OF TRADITIONAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
YEVE CULT AND ITS MUSIC
THE ROLE OF SONGS TEXTS IN AFRICAN MUSIC
THE ROLE OF MUSIC ON FESTIVALS
MUSIC IN AFRICAN FESTIVALS
List of Some Festivals in Ghana and Nigeria
VISUAL FORMS IN AFRICAN MUSIC
CHOICE IF COSTUME
USE OF MASKS AND OTHER OBJECTS OF ART
REGIONAL MUSICAL CULTURES
THE GAADVANTAGE OF SOUTHEAST GHANA
SOME MUSICAL TYPES IN AFRICA
A TABLE OF AGBADZA DANCE AND ITS ITS RHYTHMIC MOTIFS
MUSICIANS OF WEST AFRICA
SOME TRADITIONAL MUSIC COMPOSERS IN GHANA
POPULAR MUSIC IN GHANA AN INTRODUCTION
A SOME WORKS OF GHANAIAN POP MUSIC COMPOSERS
A GUIDE TO THESIS WRITING IN AFRICAN MUSIC
RELATED LITERATURE LITERATURE REVIEW
SOME AREAS IN AFRICAN MUSIC
SOME AFRICAN MUSICAL TERMS
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accompaniment African Music Agbadza Akan Akpalu Akropong Anlo-Tongu Ashanti atenteben Atsiagbeko atumpan band bells Blege Boboobo ceremonies chants chief Choir choral chorus Church College of Music common composer compositions concept cult Dagomba dance movements dancers drummer ensemble Ewe music Ewe of Ghana example feature Fela Sowande festivals flute fontofrom funerals gakogui Ghanaian gods Gogo gourd groups handclapping Hausa heptatonic highlife hocket idiophones Igbo important keys Kpanlogo Kple Kumasi Lagos language master drum Mawu mbira melodies musical instruments musical tradition musical type musicians Nayo Nigeria Nindo Nketia Nyame occasions orchestra organization oriki patterns Peki pentatonic percussion performance piano pieces played polyphony praise rattles Region of Ghana rhythm rhythmic rites role scale School singer singing social solo song texts sound Southern Ewe strings style sung technique traditional music Training College trumpets tunes Uganda University of Ghana vocal voice Volta Region West Africa Western Winneba women worship xylophone Yoruba
Page 17 - I fluctuate between the peril of indulgence and the profit I have found : and on the whole I am inclined - though I am not propounding any irrevocable opinion - to approve the custom of singing in church, that by the pleasure of the ear the weaker minds may be roused to a feeling of devotion. Yet whenever it happens that I am more moved by the singing than by the thing that is sung, I admit that I have grievously sinned, and then I should wish rather not to have heard the singing.
Page 45 - Song texts, then, can be used as a means of action directed toward the solution of problems which plague a community. While this can take the form of ridicule and shame, or sanctioned legal action, it is also apparent that song texts provide psychological release for the participants. Indeed, because of the freedom of expression allowed in song, texts seem clearly to provide an excellent means for the investigation of the psychological processes of the people who constitute a culture. Through the...
Page 45 - You can say publicly in songs what you cannot say privately to a man's face, and so this is one of the ways African society takes to maintain a spiritually healthy community
Page 6 - Ward notes one drum playing a basically unvarying beat; Hornbostel sees the organization in terms of motor behaviour, which is the opposite of the Western concept. Waterman postulates the concept of the metronome sense; and Jones makes the point of lack of coincidence of the main beats. While these specific details remain to be worked out...
Page 33 - ... of musicians dancing as they play and of dancers contributing to the music, and of both responding to one another on equal terms, in doing so contributing to the meaning of the occasion. 'The dance,' says Nketia, 'can be used as a social and artistic medium of communication. It can convey thoughts or matters of personal or social importance through the choice of movements, postures and facial expressions. Through the dance, individuals and social groups can show their reactions to attitudes of...
Page 44 - treat songs as speech utterances," inspired, perhaps, by "the importance of the song as an avenue of verbal communication, a medium for creative verbal expression which can reflect both personal and social experiences," by the influence of the verbal texts themselves, and by the prospect of enhancing musical expression through prosodic analogies (177, 178). This accounts, to some degree, for an African performance style characterized by "rapid delivery of texts, explosive sounds or special interjections,...
Page 2 - ... has nothing of interest to report to musicologists until the invention of the bow some 30,000 to 15,000 years ago. The bow was perhaps the first tool to make use of stored energy, but not necessarily for the sole purpose of shooting an arrow. There is evidence, which suggests that the bow is just as likely to have been used for the production of sound.
Page 149 - Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture in Lagos, Nigeria...
Page 44 - Language clearly affects music in that speech melody sets up certain patterns of sound which must be followed at least to some extent in music, if the music-text fusion is to be understood by the listener, but music also influences language in that musical requirements demand alterations in the patterns of normal speech.
Page 72 - ... of phrases are guided. Such an accompanying rhythm is short but persistent. Once it starts, it continues right through the performance. It is designed to form part of the music, and is, therefore, heard with every phrase and every variation of phrases in strict time.