African Poverty at the Millennium: Causes, Complexities, and Challenges
World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 2001 - Business & Economics - 139 pages
Poverty is a large and growing problem in Africa resulting in an immense amount of avoidable suffering, foreshortened lives, frustrated potentials, and joyless existences. The poverty trap is more than just an economic phenomenon but a social phenomenon as well. 'African Poverty at the Millennium: Causes, Complexities, and Challenges' is confined to the sub-Saharan region of Africa. The analysis found in Part I of this book, emphasizes the many-sided nature of poverty and the importance of going beyond generalizations about the poor. Part II looks at the various causes of poverty in Africa, stressing the powerful ill-effects of a combination of sluggish past economic growth and large, possibly widening, inequalities. It also draws attention to the strength of the social and political factors contributing to poverty. Part III outlines an anti-poverty strategy, highlighting the necessity for an inclusive and far-reaching approach, on the basis of joint action by concerned governments and donors. The poor in Africa are triply disadvantaged. Firstly, there is a widening international gap as African social indicators lag behind the rest of the world, partly as a result of poor growth. Secondly, by Africa's poor performance in turning income to social welfare. Thirdly, by national disparities in health and education between the poor and non-poor.
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Aﬁica African countries African poverty agricultural antipoverty assets beneﬁts Botswana Burkina Burkina Faso causes of poverty chapter conﬂict consumption contraceptive d’Ivoire debt relief decline demographic transition Development Indicators difﬁcult donors economic growth effects enrollment rates Ethiopia example factors fertility ﬁgure ﬁrst ﬁve gender Ghana governments groups HIV/AIDS household identiﬁed important improved income poverty increased inequalities inﬂuence infrastructure investment Kenya labor land less Madagascar Malawi Mauritania measures ment mortality Nigeria nonpoor particularly percent political poor poorest population pover poverty in Africa poverty line poverty problem poverty reduction primary pro-poor production programs quintile reduce poverty reform regions rural areas sector Senegal signiﬁcant social capital social indicators Source South Asia speciﬁc spending strategy structures Sub-Saharan Africa Tanzania targeting tion trends Uganda urban women World Bank Zambia Zimbabwe
Page 41 - Countries that have done well in the post war period are those that have been able to formulate a domestic investment strategy to kickstart growth and those that have had the appropriate institutions to handle adverse external shocks , not those that have relied on reduced barriers to trade and capital flows.
Page 110 - There should be a current national strategy for sustainable development, in the process of implementation, in every country by 2005, so as to ensure that current trends in the loss of environmental resources — forests, fisheries, fresh water, climate, soils, biodiversity, stratospheric ozone, the accumulation of hazardous substances and other major indicators — are effectively reversed at both global and national levels by 201 5.
Page 86 - England, nor yet the unostentatious attentions which we have among our own poor to each other. Yet there are frequent instances of genuine kindness and liberality, as well as actions of an opposite character. The rich show kindness to the poor, in expectation of services, and a poor person who has no relatives, will seldom be supplied even with water in illness, and, when dead, will be dragged out to be devoured by the hyzenas, instead of being buried.
Page 88 - East Asia and Pacific Europe and Central Asia Latin America and Caribbean Middle East and North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa...
Page 110 - The proportion of people living in extreme poverty in developing countries should be reduced by at least one-half by 2015.
Page 110 - Progress toward gender equality and the empowerment of women should be demonstrated by eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005.
Page 110 - The implementation of national strategies for sustainable development in all countries by 2005 so as to ensure that current trends in the loss of environmental resources are effectively reversed at both global and national levels by 2015.
Page 62 - The diverse political freedoms that are available in a democratic state, including regular elections, free newspapers and freedom of speech, must be seen as the real force behind the elimination of famines.
Page 41 - Policy makers therefore have to focus on the fundamentals of economic growth — investment, macroeconomic stability, human resources and good governance — and not let international economic integration dominate their thinking. His research confirms the advice of Arthur Lewis. The next few paragraphs summarize his findings. XI. INFLATED CLAIMS FOR OPENNESS There is no special advantage in "openness.