African States and Contemporary International Law: A Case Study of the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention and the Exclusive Economic Zone
The Third Conference on the Law of the Sea marked a watershed in the emergence of African diplomatic and legal activities within the international system. Analysis of those states' participation therefore not only provides a template for the study of bloc activity at this level; it also adds the comprehensive analysis of African participation at UNCLOS III and, finally, it should also reveal the means by which states can more effectively impact global political and legislative processes. This study evaluates the extent to which the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) concept represents an attempt by African states to allot to international law the task of correcting inequities between nations, and the future implications of such linkage. It critically explores and analyzes the conceptual framework that initiated action by African states in UNCLOS III, and it examines their attempts to operationalize this framework by their substantive participation in the negotiations. Finally, the study explores the future implications of African activity in the international legal and political system. In this evaluative process the author suggests the need for greater insight in conceptualizing the role of African states as a bloc within the international system. Only in this manner can a better appreciation be had of the important role African states are playing as contributors in the formation of contemporary international law.
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ANALYTIC FOCUS AND METHODOLOGY
SOURCES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND ATTITUDE
AFRICAN ATTITUDE TOWARDS CUSTOMARY MARITIME
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200 nautical miles A/AC A/CONF AALCC activities adopted African coastal African governments agreements allowable catch Asian-African Benin Cameroon claims coast colonial concerned conservation continental shelf cooperation Cote d'lvoire customary international law developing countries draft articles EEZ concept established Ethiopia European exclusive economic zone fishery resources fishing freedom G.A. Official Records G.A. Resolution Geneva geographically disadvantaged Ghana Group of 77 Guinea-Bissau high seas Ibid Indian Ocean International Legal Materials issues Kenya land-locked and geographically Liberia limit living resources LL/GD LOSC Mali marine resources maritime Mauritania Mozambique national jurisdiction natural resources nautical miles negotiations Nigeria norms OAU Declaration Ocean Development ocean law offshore paragraph participation political principles proposal regime relations reprinted in International role Sea Convention Sea-Bed Committee seabed Senegal Session Somalia sovereignty Tanzania territorial sea territorial waters Third United Nations traditional international law treaties Uganda UNCLOS United Nations Conference Zaire Zambia