African iron working, ancient and traditional
Iron working has a long and rich history in Africa--it was decisive for the development of many African cultures and states, and its study is now yielding results of great significance. This book, a collection of articles by archaeologists and enthnographers from the USA, Africa, and Europe, explores the development of the iron working processes, the reasons for local variation, the role of iron workers in ancient and modern societies, and the way in which iron production changed society.
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African Iron Age anvil appear associated Avery Bantu base bellows blacksmith bloom bloomery BuHaya Cameroon carbon Central Africa century A.D. charcoal charcoal bundle clay complex cultural Darfur dated deforestation diameter Dimam Dimi draught Early Iron Age east Ethiopia ethnographic excavated ferricrete forging Francis-Boeuf fuel furnace wall Futa Jallon Ghana hammer Haya heat loss Heusch hole hypothesis indicate iron production iron smelting iron technology Jebel Kense king Kingdom of Ghana layer magnetite Mali Maret material Meroe Meroitic Merwe metallurgy mound Niani Niger Nigeria northern Noten Nupe observations operation oxidation pieces pottery preheating recent reconstructions reduction region remains royal quarter Rwanda Samaru West Schmidt second smelt settlement shaft furnace Shinnie slag smelting furnace smelting process smelting techniques smith southern style Sudan suggested Tanzania Taruga temperature tion tradition Tsauni tuyeres Tylecote Vansina village West Africa zone