Against Raz' Notion of Second Order Reasons
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Ethics, grade: A, University of Helsinki (Department of Social and Moral Philosophy), course: Seminar on Normativity, language: English, abstract: The essay is a critique of Joseph Raz' concept of second order reasons, especially exclusionary reasons, as presented in chapter one of his 1975 book "Practical Reason and Norms". It is argued that exclusionary reasons as defined by Raz have strange consequences that disqualify them from serious consideration. A counterproposal lays out how decision problems can be more plausibly interpreted as conflicts of first order reasons. His examples are reinterpreted in light of the counterproposal.
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abducted by aliens accept Raz accepting exclusionary reasons according to Raz Account of Second accumulated force act on second Ann's Example better bundles of reasons change in force choose common first order Complying Soldier concept condition for SORs consider the decision consumers 5000 contrary Counterproposal decide effective rejection entail to disregard exact balance family matters FDVH feeling force FOR 5000 force SOR Formalizing Reasons give compelling hypothetical agent idea of second influence SORs investment Jeremy example Jeremy's KLJKHU lexical order lives of consumers merits need reason Noncompliant Subordinate option order conflict order reasons family order reasons protect outcome pro W contra rational Raz Faces Problems reason to accept reasons family 50 reasons protect lives reject the offer RUGHU second order reasons second order terms strength trumps UHDVRQ uneasiness validity of SORs viewed as overriding VKRXOG W contra W W first order Whistleblowing Example WKDW YDOLG