Age, Accent, and Experience in Second Language Acquisition: An Integrated Approach to Critical Period Inquiry
This work critically addresses the age debate in second language acquisition studies, presenting an in-depth study of factors that predict foreign accent. Quantitative and qualitative analyses confirm that cognitive, social, and psychological factors contribute to attainment, and that biological influences must therefore be considered alongside these essential aspects of learner experience.
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accuracy adult age effects age of onset analysis ANOVA attitudes behaviors Bialystok bilingual biological-experiential Birdsong Chapter cognitive connections consistency constraints contact with native context correlations critical period critical period hypothesis cultural differences Dora epenthesis experiential exposure feedback Flege Gastarbeiter German language German phonology grammar greater identity immigrants impact important in-country individual influence input instructional-cognitive interaction interlanguage interview intonation Korech L2 experience language abilities language attainment language contact language learning language learning aptitude late language late learners length of residence linguistic long-term markedness maturation Mean Rating motivation Moyer native speakers native-level native-like native-ness non-native speakers obstruents opportunities orientation outcome participants perceptions phonetic phonological acquisition phonological attainment predicted pronunciation psycholinguistic psychological raters realm regression relationships sample satisfaction with attainment Second Language Acquisition significant social social-psychological sounding native specific statistical strategies suprasegmental Table target language task tion ultimate attainment universal Universal Grammar variables vowel length
Page 159 - F., & Skageby, J. (2001 ). Spoken interaction with computers in a native or non-native language: Same or different? In Human Computer Interact '01 (pp. 294-301). Retrieved June 25, 2005. from http://www.stanford.edu/~nass/ comm369/pdf/InGroupVs.OutGroupPrompts.pdf.