Age in the Welfare State: The Origins of Social Spending on Pensioners, Workers, and Children
This book asks why some countries devote the lion's share of their social policy resources to the elderly, while others have a more balanced repertoire of social spending. Far from being the outcome of demands for welfare spending by powerful age-based groups in society, the 'age' of welfare is an unintended consequence of the way that social programs are set up. The way that politicians use welfare state spending to compete for votes, along either programmatic or particularistic lines, locks these early institutional choices into place. So while society is changing - aging, divorcing, moving in and out of the labor force over the life course in new ways - social policies do not evolve to catch up. The result, in occupational welfare states like Italy, the United States, and Japan, is social spending that favors the elderly and leaves working-aged adults and children largely to fend for themselves.
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First Great Divide ca 1900
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age orientation aggregate beneficiaries benefit levels capita Catholic Christian Democratic Party CIGS citizenship-based clientelist Confindustria constituencies contributions corporatism countries coverage data from OECD demographic different age groups disability Dutch early retirement effects elderly electoral employers ENSR families with children family allowance spending family allowance system health spending income increase institutions Italian Italy Italy’s labor market labor market policies mode of political Netherlands non-elderly occupationalist old-age pensions orientation of social orientation of welfare pension benefits pension spending pension system pensions in Italy percent political actors political competition politicians population postwar period poverty power resources programmatic public pension PvdA replacement rates result retirement age self-employed seniority pensions Social Democratic social expenditures social insurance social minimum social policy social programs social spending tax expenditures tax system unem unemployment benefits unemployment insurance unemployment insurance benefits unions universal universalistic wage welfare programs World War II youth unemployed youth-oriented