Aging and skilled performance: advances in theory and applications
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996 - Family & Relationships - 280 pages
The term "skill" encompasses an array of topics and issues. for example, individuals are skilled in a variety of domains such as chess, typing, air traffic control, or knitting; researchers study skill in a variety of ways, including speed of acquisition, accuracy of performance, and retention over time; and there are a variety of approaches to the study of skill such as computer modeling or experimental analysis. Contributing to the understanding of whether, how, when, and why skills may decline as a function of age is the goal of this volume. This book is based on the Aging and Skill Conference sponsored by the Center for Applied Cognitive Research on Aging. The broad focus of the conference was to discuss cognitive theories underlying age-related skill acquisition, transfer, and retention and to discuss applications of these theories to such issues as age-adaptive training, compensatory strategies and devices, and utilization of new and existing technology. The contributors were asked to discuss the cognitive theory relevant to their topic, explain how the theory informs the field about aging, examine where gaps exist among general cognitive theory in this area and theories of aging, and demonstrate the practical relevance of the theory to enhancing or enabling activities of daily living--for work, home, or leisure--for older adults. This is the first book to focus exclusively on aging and skill. It covers a range of abilities, provides the theoretical basis for the current status of age-related differences in skill, and offers direct evidence of the applicability of research on proficiency to aspects of daily living. Each chapter was written either by an expert in the field of aging, or by an expert in the field of skill--many expert in both areas.
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ability accuracy Ackerman age differences age-related differences analysis assessment attention attribute automatic influences behavior Birren Charness complex computer skills computer tasks context control processes control theory Craik decrements dual-task performance dual-task processing Effects of age encoding environmental support example Experiment Experimental Psychology feedback Fisk function Gerontology grid Hillsdale Human Factors hypothesis important increased individual differences instructions intelligence interaction interface Jacoby Journal of Experimental knowledge lag sensitive model Lawrence Erlbaum Associates learner learning levels mapping measures memory and aging menus movement control number of variables old adults older adults paired associate parameters participants perceptual personal computer practical relevance predictions presented procedural Psychology and Aging Rogers Salthouse Schaie screen type signal detection theory skill acquisition spatial speed stimulus subjects suggest target term memory theory tion training strategies trial values visual search word processing younger adults younger and older