Agrarian Populism and the Mexican State: The Struggle for Land in Sonora

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University of California Press, Jan 1, 1981 - Business & Economics - 290 pages
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As oil-rich Mexico faces the 1980s, conflicts between agrarian populism and capitalist industrialization call for resolution. The internal peace and political stability that made the period between the late 1930s and the early 1970s so productive left many Mexicans--particularly the campesinos--marginal to the benefits of the economy. During this period of economic growth, agrarian reform, the trademark of the Mexican revolution, was relegated to a position of lesser importance in national politics. But with forty percent of the population still remaning in the countryside, it is clear that programs for rural development and land redistribution must again be given prominence. In this study of Sonora--a key agricultural state in northwestern Mexico--Steven E. Sanderson examines in economic and political terms the post-revolutionary rise of agrarian reform and its decline, dividing the sixty years of change (from 1917 to 1976) into three periods. Agrarian populism dominated the first, which he calls a time of post-revolutionary consolidation (1917-1940). Then, during the "miracle years" of 1940-1970, the growing strength of capital and the success of state-led import substitution plans led to a counterreform in agrarian politics. In the final period, that of President Echeverria's populist resurgence (1970-1976), ambitious but flawed agrarian reform plans clashed with the sector that favored the increasing concentration of land, income, and political influence. Sonora provides a particularly interesting view of these developments because of its political and geographical distance from metropolitan Mexico, its rich history of independence, its economic growth since the revolution, and the political sophistication of its residents. The events in this state exemplify the regional imbalances, the ideological biases, and the political manipulations contributing to the crisis in state legitimacy that dominated Mexican politics in the 1970s. Using a combination of agrarian census materials, state archives, newspapers, records from relevant ministries, and selected interviews with participants, Sanderson presents the complex history of conflict between the political base supporting agrarian reform and the economic forces advocating industrialization and economic growth.

This title is part of UC Press's Voices Revived program, which commemorates University of California Press's mission to seek out and cultivate the brightest minds and give them voice, reach, and impact. Drawing on a backlist dating to 1893, Voices Revived makes high-quality, peer-reviewed scholarship accessible once again using print-on-demand technology. This title was originally published in 1981.

 

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Contents

Porfirian Progress
31
Railroad Expansion 18761910
35
Baldios Adjudicated 18671906
37
Shares of Agricultural Production 18771907
41
THE CREATION OF ORDER
53
The Consolidation of Revolutionary
93
Land Distribution Under Cardenas 19351940
115
Loans Made by the Banco Ejidal 19361940
120
Land Irrigated Through Pequena Irrigacidn Program 19371970
154
Composition of the Labor Force in Agriculture and Livestock 1965
161
Ejidal Rentismo in Irrigation Districts 38 and 41 Mayo and Yaqui Valleys 19731974 Season
162
Area Irrigated by Land Type Sonora 1973
163
Populist Revival and the Crisis
168
Value of Agricultural Production in Irrigated Areas of Sonora
178
Toward a Theory of Mexican Populism
203
A1 Definitive Distribution of Land 19201924
228

Credit Granted by Banco Ejidal to Collective Ejidos in the Yaqui Valley 19371940
121
Average Yearly Rice and Wheat Yields in the Yaqui River Valley 19381943
146
Ejidal Growth in Mexico 19301950
147
Private Land Tenure in Sonora 19401970
149
Value of OnSitc Irrigation Works 1940 and 1970
150
Mechanization of Irrigation Districts in Various Geographic Zones of Mexico 1964
151
Land Tenure and Capital Invested Sonora 1970
153
A7 Lands Distributed in the Mayo Valley Initiated During
234
A10 Ejidal Grants Initiated Under Roman Yocupicio 19371938
241
A13 Public Spending in Agriculture 19351970
247
A19 Average Annual Rates of Agricultural Growth in the Mexican
256
Glossary
261
Index
279
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About the author (1981)

Steven E. Sanderson is the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Wildlife Conservation Society.

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