Agricultural Research in an Era of Adjustment: Policies, Institutions, and Progress
Steven R. Tabor
World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 1995 - Technology & Engineering - 201 pages
Examines events in the economic history of Brazil over a 25-year period spanning its strong growth phase in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the high inflation which followed, and the external debt crisis of the 1980s. This study examines Brazil's economic history from 1964, when a military regime was instituted, to 1992, when Brazil's first popularly elected president in 25 years was forced from office on charges of corruption. The period witnessed unprecedented growth followed by high levels of inflation and soaring external debt. Reviewing the economic challenges of the 1970s, the author blames poor policymaking in response to two oil price shocks for the onset of high inflation. In addition, a series of failed stabilization efforts after the external debt crisis in 1982 slowed economic growth as investment plummeted. The author concludes with a discussion of the valuable lessons learned from the period. The most important lesson may be that an open economy can postpone essential but unpleasant adjustments to correct serious economic problems, but at a larger cost to society in the long-term. This postponement in Brazil has lead to decreased latitude for policymakers in the 1990s.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
AARD Adjustment and Agricultural adjustment efforts adjustment period adjustment policies Africa agricultural GDP agricultural growth agricultural production agricultural research institutions agricultural research projects agricultural research system agriculture sector areas budget Burkina Faso capital CFAF Chile cocoa commodities core economic costs decline deficit domestic economic adjustment effect environment exchange rate exports external farm farmers fertilizer fiscal food crops foreign funding Ghana implementation important improve incentives income increased Indonesia inflation INIA INIFAP inputs International irrigation Kenya labor linkages livestock macroeconomic maize Mexico million Ministry NARS national agricultural research OECD officials operations Ouagadougou outlays output percent of GDP percent per annum policy change policy reform policymakers private sector public investment public sector reduce regional research leaders research policy research service response result rice role rural salaries scientists sorghum sources spending Sri Lanka staff structural adjustment program subsidies tradable trade U.S. dollars World Bank
Page xii - GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDP gross domestic product GN'P gross national product...
Page 35 - The Third Report on Adjustment Lending: Private and Public Resources for Growth, Washington, DC: World Bank.
Page 61 - United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Page 146 - Impact of Agricultural Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Synthesis of Symposium Findings...
Page 69 - Agricultural Price Policy, Food Aid and Input Subsidy Reforms in Burkina Faso.
Page 21 - P. and A. Calcagno (1999): La economia brasilena ante el Plan Real y su crisis, 'Temas de coyuntura" series, No. 4, Santiago, Chile, ECLAC. Stem, E. (1991): Evolution and lessons of adjustment lending, in V. Thomas, A. Chibber and J. de Melo (eds.), Restructuring Economies in Distress, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. Thomas, V., A. Chibber and J. de Melo (eds.) (1991): Restructuring Economies in Distress, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. Tigre, P., JE Cassiolato and others (1999...
Page 20 - The Political Economy of Economic Liberalization', World Bank Economic Review, 1,2.
Page 160 - ... overwhelming conclusion is that estimated rates of return to agricultural research have been high, typically well above 20 percent per year. Hence, there appears in general to have been a gross underinvestment in agricultural research. Some reservations can be raised about this evidence. Most of those studies have not adjusted for the effects of price-distorting policies on the measures of research benefits, an omission that might lead to over- or understatement of the benefits and the rate of...