Agricultural Policies in Developing Countries

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Cambridge University Press, Jan 30, 1992 - Business & Economics - 357 pages
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This book is about agricultural policies in developing countries. It concerns the methods used by governments to change the ecomonic and social framework within which agricultural production takes place: by influencing the prices of farm inputs and outputs, by modifying agricultural institutions, and by promoting new technologies in agriculture. The book is organized around a central set of eight policy chapters, covering topics of price policy, marketing policy, input policy, credit policy, mechanization policy, land reform policy, and irrigation policy. These chapters are preceded by material covering the nature of policy, a framework for policy analysis, and the principles used by economists to undertake agricultural policy analysis. They are followed by chapters that examine the status of women in agricultural policies, and that summarize aspects of food policy not covered in the main policy chapters.
 

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Contents

Market state and policy
3
Market policy and state
6
State versus market
8
Peasants and policies
13
Summary
14
Further reading
16
Policy analysis Framework
17
A critical view
21
Propositions and evidence
180
Policy failures and effects
182
Sequences and diversity of mechanisation
184
Towards consistent mechanisation policies
186
Mechanisation and peasants
188
Mechanisation policy and women
189
Summary
190
Further reading
192

Concepts in applied welfare economics
24
Summary
26
Further reading
28
Policy analysis Economics
29
Revision of elasticities
31
Producer and consumer surplus
35
World prices and opportunity cost
46
Examples of policy intervention effects
49
Private economic and social prices
55
Summary measures of price policy effects
57
Summary
59
Further reading
61
Agricultural policies
63
Introduction
65
Price policy
67
Objectives of output price policy
69
Instruments of price policy
70
Criteria for determining price levels
73
Impact and effectiveness of price policy
81
Lessons of price policy experience
88
Price policy and women
90
Summary
91
Further reading
93
Marketing policy
95
Concepts in the study of marketing
96
Objectives of marketing policy
100
Instruments of marketing policy
101
Policy analysis of marketing systems
104
Lessons of marketing policy experience
116
Peasants and marketing
119
Marketing policy and women
120
Summary
121
Further reading
123
Reading list
124
Input policy
125
Objectives of input policy
126
Instruments of input policy
128
Input policy problems and debates
131
Fertilizer policy
136
Lessons of input policy
146
Input policy and women
147
Summary
148
Further reading
150
Credit policy
152
Objectives of old credit policy
155
Institutions of old credit policy
156
Instruments of old credit policy
158
Defects of old credit policy
160
New objectives and new instruments
163
Institutional innovations
167
A note on the pace of change
168
Peasants moneylenders and credit policy
169
Credit policy and women
170
Summary
171
Further reading
173
Mechanisation policy
175
Economic concepts of mechanisation
176
Land reform policy
194
Nature scope and definitions
195
Objectives of land reform
197
Paths of change in land tenure
200
Instruments of land reform
204
Problems of implementation
207
Lessons from the historical experience
209
Current and future relevance
210
Peasants and land reform
212
Land reform policy and women
213
Summary
214
Further reading
217
Research policy
219
Organisation of formal research
222
Alternative models
225
Farming systems research
232
Farmer first research
237
Goals and priorities of research
238
Economic evaluation of research impact
242
Research policy and women
247
Summary
248
Further reading
251
Irrigation policy
254
Objectives of irrigation policy
256
Irrigation types and choice of technology
258
Economic concepts for irrigation policy
262
Irrigation management and water charges
266
Irrigation in resourcepoor environments
272
Irrigation policy and women
273
Further reading
276
Comparative summary
278
Crosscutting themes
283
Women and agricultural policies
285
Determinants of policy impacts on women
286
Comparative summary of policy effects on women
290
Towards genderaware agricultural policies
297
Summary
299
Further reading
300
Reading list
301
Food policy and food security
302
Evolution of concepts
305
Food security
310
Food policy instruments
312
Food aid
316
Summary
319
Further reading
321
Reading list
322
Policies in perspective
323
Market state and policies
324
Framework and methods of analysis
325
Agricultural policies
326
Women and policies
333
Conclusion
335
References
336
Author index
349
Subject index
353
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